e10vq
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form 10-Q
 
     
þ
  QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2011
or
o
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from          to          
 
Commission file number 1-06732
 
COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
     
Delaware   95-6021257
(State or Other Jurisdiction of   (I.R.S. Employer
Incorporation or Organization)   Identification Number)
445 South Street, Morristown, NJ   07960
(Address of Principal Executive Office)   (Zip Code)
 
(862) 345-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number including area code)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes þ No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
             
Large accelerated filer þ
  Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No þ
 
Applicable Only to Corporate Issuers:
 
The number of shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of the last practicable date.
 
     
Class   Outstanding at July 14, 2011
 
Common Stock, $0.10 par value   142,906,190 shares
 


 

COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
FORM 10-Q QUARTERLY REPORT
For the Quarter Ended June 30, 2011

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
                 
        Page
 
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements     3  
  Item 1.     Financial Statements     4  
        Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2011 and 2010 (Unaudited)     4  
        Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of June 30, 2011 (Unaudited) and December 31, 2010     5  
        Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Six Months Ended June 30, 2011 and 2010 (Unaudited)     6  
        Condensed Consolidated Statements of Equity for the Six Months Ended June 30, 2011 and 2010 (Unaudited)     7  
        Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)     8  
        Note 1.  Organization and Basis of Presentation     8  
        Note 2.  Recent Accounting Pronouncements     9  
        Note 3.  Assets Held for Sale and Dispositions     9  
        Note 4.  Earnings Per Share     10  
        Note 5.  Financial Information by Business Segments     12  
        Note 6.  Changes in Capitalization     12  
        Note 7.  Income Taxes     15  
        Note 8.  Supplementary Information     16  
        Note 9.  Benefit Obligations     18  
        Note 10. Stock-Based Compensation     18  
        Note 11. Financial Instruments     19  
        Note 12. Derivative Instruments     24  
        Note 13. Commitments and Contingencies     25  
  Item 2.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations     28  
        Overview     28  
        Results of Operations     35  
        Liquidity and Capital Resources     42  
  Item 3.     Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk     49  
  Item 4.     Controls and Procedures     49  
 
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
  Item 1.     Legal Proceedings     50  
  Item 1A.     Risk Factors     50  
  Item 2.     Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds     50  
  Item 3.     Defaults Upon Senior Securities     50  
  Item 4.     Removed and Reserved     50  
  Item 5.     Other Information     51  
  Item 6.     Exhibits     51  
 
OTHER
Signatures     52  
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32
 EX-101 INSTANCE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 SCHEMA DOCUMENT
 EX-101 CALCULATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 LABELS LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 PRESENTATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 DEFINITION LINKBASE DOCUMENT


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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
Certain statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q may constitute “forward-looking” statements as defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”), the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (the “PSLRA”) or in releases made by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), all as may be amended from time to time. Such forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Covanta Holding Corporation and its subsidiaries (“Covanta”) or industry results, to differ materially from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Statements that are not historical fact are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements can be identified by, among other things, the use of forward-looking language, such as the words “plan,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “project,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “seeks,” or “scheduled to,” or other similar words, or the negative of these terms or other variations of these terms or comparable language, or by discussion of strategy or intentions. These cautionary statements are being made pursuant to the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and the PSLRA with the intention of obtaining the benefits of the “safe harbor” provisions of such laws. Covanta cautions investors that any forward-looking statements made by Covanta are not guarantees or indicative of future performance. Important assumptions and other important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those forward-looking statements with respect to Covanta include, but are not limited to, the risks and uncertainties affecting their businesses described in Item 1A. Risk Factors of Covanta’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2010 and in other filings by Covanta with the SEC.
 
Although Covanta believes that its plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by such forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results could differ materially from a projection or assumption in any of its forward-looking statements. Covanta’s future financial condition and results of operations, as well as any forward-looking statements, are subject to change and inherent risks and uncertainties. The forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are made only as of the date hereof and Covanta does not have or undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, subsequent events or otherwise, unless otherwise required by law.


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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 
                                 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
    (Unaudited)
 
    (In thousands, except per share amounts)  
 
OPERATING REVENUES:
                               
Waste and service revenues
  $   276,345     $   267,786     $   527,441     $   509,007  
Electricity and steam sales
    97,803       99,643       192,135       200,566  
Other operating revenues
    37,387       25,948       68,729       51,497  
                                 
Total operating revenues
    411,535       393,377       788,305       761,070  
                                 
OPERATING EXPENSES:
                               
Plant operating expenses
    247,740       233,526       518,988       497,162  
Other operating expenses
    31,083       25,148       58,416       48,676  
General and administrative expenses
    25,274       28,197       49,777       54,387  
Depreciation and amortization expense
    47,215       46,398       94,580       94,836  
Net interest expense on project debt
    7,862       9,812       15,825       20,094  
                                 
Total operating expenses
    359,174       343,081       737,586       715,155  
                                 
Operating income
    52,361       50,296       50,719       45,915  
                                 
Other income (expense):
                               
Investment income
    118       173       379       396  
Interest expense
    (16,811 )     (10,693 )     (33,572 )     (21,279 )
Non-cash convertible debt related expense
    (6,425 )     (11,734 )     (11,585 )     (19,981 )
Other expenses, net
    (2,778 )           (3,134 )      
                                 
Total other expenses
    (25,896 )     (22,254 )     (47,912 )     (40,864 )
                                 
Income from continuing operations before income tax expense and equity in net income (loss) from unconsolidated investments
    26,465       28,042       2,807       5,051  
Income tax expense
    (10,564 )     (12,889 )     (578 )     (3,007 )
Equity in net income (loss) from unconsolidated investments
    1,850       1,099       1,973       (243 )
                                 
Income from continuing operations
    17,751       16,252       4,202       1,801  
Income from discontinued operations, net of income tax expense of $913, $1,919, $3,106 and $3,926, respectively
    1,924       11,022       150,866       20,740  
                                 
NET INCOME
    19,675       27,274       155,068       22,541  
                                 
Less: Net income from continuing operations attributable to noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
    (809 )     (773 )     (901 )     (2,335 )
Less: Net income from discontinued operations attributable to noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
    (726 )     (712 )     (2,534 )     (1,650 )
                                 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
    (1,535 )     (1,485 )     (3,435 )     (3,985 )
                                 
NET INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION
  $ 18,140     $ 25,789     $ 151,633     $ 18,556  
                                 
Amounts Attributable to Covanta Holding Corporation stockholders’:
                               
Continuing operations
  $ 16,942     $ 15,479     $ 3,301     $ (534 )
Discontinued operations
    1,198       10,310       148,332       19,090  
                                 
Net Income Attributable to Covanta Holding Corporation
  $ 18,140     $ 25,789     $ 151,633     $ 18,556  
                                 
Earnings Per Share Attributable to Covanta Holding Corporation stockholders’:
                               
Basic
                               
Continuing operations
  $ 0.12     $ 0.10     $ 0.02     $ 0.00  
Discontinued operations
    0.01       0.07       1.02       0.12  
                                 
Covanta Holding Corporation
  $ 0.13     $ 0.17     $ 1.04     $ 0.12  
                                 
Weighted Average Shares
    143,970       154,377       145,415       154,139  
                                 
Diluted
                               
Continuing operations
  $ 0.12     $ 0.10     $ 0.02     $ 0.00  
Discontinued operations
    0.01       0.07       1.02       0.12  
                                 
Covanta Holding Corporation
  $ 0.13     $ 0.17     $ 1.04     $ 0.12  
                                 
Weighted Average Shares
    144,938       155,026       146,323       154,139  
                                 
Cash Dividend Declared Per Share:
  $ 0.075     $ 1.50     $ 0.15     $ 1.50  
                                 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 
                 
    As of  
    June 30,
    December 31,
 
    2011     2010  
    (Unaudited)        
    (In thousands, except per share amounts)  
 
ASSETS
Current:
               
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 235,061     $ 126,439  
Restricted funds held in trust     110,574       125,568  
Receivables (less allowances of $3,938 and $3,192, respectively)     251,321       271,549  
Unbilled service receivables     17,563       23,080  
Deferred income taxes     35,401       27,459  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets     117,850       110,071  
Assets held for sale     81,277       190,957  
                 
Total Current Assets
    849,047       875,123  
Property, plant and equipment, net     2,460,837       2,478,019  
Investments in fixed maturities at market (cost: $26,761 and $28,537, respectively)     27,534       29,022  
Restricted funds held in trust     108,387       107,424  
Unbilled service receivables     27,891       31,804  
Waste, service and energy contracts, net     453,882       472,190  
Other intangible assets, net     76,218       78,892  
Goodwill     237,510       230,020  
Investments in investees and joint ventures     43,105       45,742  
Other assets     325,272       328,066  
                 
Total Assets
  $  4,609,683     $  4,676,302  
                 
 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
Current:
               
Current portion of long-term debt   $ 56,041     $ 6,710  
Current portion of project debt     98,634       141,515  
Accounts payable     26,795       23,033  
Deferred revenue     83,970       71,503  
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities     205,525       186,395  
Liabilities held for sale     18,947       34,266  
                 
Total Current Liabilities
    489,912       463,422  
Long-term debt     1,486,978       1,557,701  
Project debt     635,351       661,788  
Deferred income taxes     612,633       604,501  
Waste and service contracts     82,429       88,632  
Other liabilities     142,038       139,799  
                 
Total Liabilities
    3,449,341       3,515,843  
                 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 13)
               
                 
Equity:
               
Covanta Holding Corporation stockholders’ equity:
               
Preferred stock ($0.10 par value; authorized 10,000 shares; none issued and outstanding)            
Common stock ($0.10 par value; authorized 250,000 shares; issued 157,658 and 156,847 shares; outstanding 143,011 and 149,891 shares)     15,766       15,685  
Additional paid-in capital     857,619       893,373  
Accumulated other comprehensive income     13,507       5,233  
Accumulated earnings     260,174       214,091  
Treasury stock, at par     (1,465 )     (696 )
                 
Total Covanta Holding Corporation stockholders’ equity
    1,145,601       1,127,686  
                 
Noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries     14,741       32,773  
                 
Total Equity
    1,160,342       1,160,459  
                 
Total Liabilities and Equity
  $ 4,609,683     $ 4,676,302  
                 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
 
                 
    For the Six Months Ended June 30,  
    2011     2010  
    (Unaudited)
 
    (In thousands)  
 
OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
               
Net income
  $   155,068     $   22,541  
Less: Income from discontinued operations, net of tax expense     150,866       20,740  
                 
Income from continuing operations
    4,202       1,801  
                 
Adjustments to reconcile net income from continuing operations to net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations:
               
Depreciation and amortization expense     94,580       94,836  
Amortization of long-term debt deferred financing costs     2,869       3,364  
Amortization of debt premium and discount     (2,535 )     (3,724 )
Loss on extinguishment of debt     362        
Non-cash convertible debt related expense     11,585       19,981  
Stock-based compensation expense     8,987       9,421  
Equity in net (income) loss from unconsolidated investments     (1,973 )     243  
Dividends from unconsolidated investments     4,581       1,783  
Deferred income taxes     (1,856 )     5,147  
Other, net     3,123       4,367  
Change in restricted funds held in trust     (9,449 )     (1,116 )
Change in working capital, net of effects of acquisitions     41,806       53,864  
                 
Total adjustments for continuing operations
    152,080       188,166  
                 
Net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations     156,282       189,967  
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities from discontinued operations     (4,503 )     18,964  
                 
Net cash provided by operating activities
    151,779       208,931  
                 
INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
               
Proceeds from the sale of investment securities     9,641       4,803  
Purchase of investment securities     (7,847 )     (8,241 )
Purchase of property, plant and equipment     (67,737 )     (64,460 )
Acquisition of noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries           (2,000 )
Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired     (9,500 )     (128,366 )
Loan issued for the Harrisburg EfW facility to fund certain facility improvements, net of repayments           (400 )
Acquisition of land use rights     (8,181 )     (15,098 )
Other, net     (4,988 )     (12,550 )
                 
Net cash used in investing activities from continuing operations     (88,612 )     (226,312 )
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities from discontinued operations     219,296       (80 )
                 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
    130,684       (226,392 )
                 
FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
               
Principal payments on long-term debt     (9,436 )     (3,268 )
Principal payments on project debt     (76,913 )     (95,449 )
Proceeds from borrowings on project debt     8,698       2,661  
Change in restricted funds held in trust     23,831       (16,027 )
Proceeds from the exercise of options for common stock, net     403       703  
Cash dividends paid to stockholders     (11,026 )      
Common stock repurchased     (123,100 )      
Distributions to partners of noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries     (3,068 )     (2,690 )
Other, net     (2,835 )     5,559  
                 
Net cash used in financing activities from continuing operations     (193,446 )     (108,511 )
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities from discontinued operations     14,638       (19,829 )
                 
Net cash used in financing activities
    (178,808 )     (128,340 )
                 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
    1,383       (2,556 )
                 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
    105,038       (148,357 )
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
    140,646       433,683  
                 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
    245,684       285,326  
Less: Cash and cash equivalents of discontinued operations at end of period
    10,623       14,717  
                 
Cash and cash equivalents of continuing operations at end of period
  $ 235,061     $ 270,609  
                 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EQUITY
 
                                                                         
    Covanta Holding Corporation Stockholders’ Equity              
                      Accumulated
                               
                Additional
    Other
                      Noncontrolling
       
    Common Stock     Paid-In
    Comprehensive
    Accumulated
    Treasury Stock     Interests in
       
    Shares     Amount     Capital     Income     Earnings     Shares     Amount     Subsidiaries     Total  
    (Unaudited, in thousands)  
 
Balance as of December 31, 2010
    156,847     $ 15,685     $ 893,373     $ 5,233     $ 214,091       6,956     $ (696 )   $ 32,773     $ 1,160,459  
Stock-based compensation expense
                    8,987                                               8,987  
Deferred tax adjustment on stock-based compensation
                    (1,464 )                                             (1,464 )
Dividends declared
                                    (21,835 )                             (21,835 )
Common stock repurchased
                    (43,114 )             (80,505 )     7,449       (745 )             (124,364 )
Repurchase of equity related to Debenture tender offer
                    (71 )                                             (71 )
Unvested restricted shares forfeited
                    2                       25       (2 )              
Exercise of options to purchase common stock
    68       7       396                                               403  
Shares issued in non-vested stock award
    743       74       (74 )                                              
Dividends for vested stock awards
                    821               (821 )                              
Shares repurchased for tax withholdings for vested stock awards
                    (1,237 )             (2,389 )     217       (22 )             (3,648 )
Elimination due to sale of controlling interests in subsidiaries
                                                            (18,274 )     (18,274 )
Distributions to partners of noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
                                                            (3,068 )     (3,068 )
Comprehensive income, net of income taxes:
                                                                       
Net income
                                    151,633                       3,435       155,068  
Foreign currency translation
                            8,332                               (125 )     8,207  
Pension and other postretirement plan unrecognized net loss, net of income tax benefit of $131
                            (200 )                                     (200 )
Net unrealized loss on derivatives, net of income tax benefit of $146
                            (223 )                                     (223 )
Net unrealized gain on securities, net of income tax expense of $240
                            365                                       365  
                                                                         
Total comprehensive income
                            8,274       151,633                       3,310       163,217  
                                                                         
Balance as of June 30, 2011
    157,658     $ 15,766     $ 857,619     $ 13,507     $ 260,174       14,647     $ (1,465 )   $ 14,741     $ 1,160,342  
                                                                         
 
                                                                         
    Covanta Holding Corporation Stockholders’ Equity              
                      Accumulated
                               
                Additional
    Other
                      Noncontrolling
       
    Common Stock     Paid-In
    Comprehensive
    Accumulated
    Treasury Stock     Interests in
       
    Shares     Amount     Capital     Income     Earnings     Shares     Amount     Subsidiaries     Total  
    (Unaudited, in thousands)  
 
Balance as of December 31, 2009
    155,615     $ 15,562     $ 916,423     $ 7,443     $ 443,646       679     $ (68 )   $ 34,163     $ 1,417,169  
Stock-based compensation expense
                    9,421                                               9,421  
Cash dividend declared
                                    (232,671 )                             (232,671 )
Unvested restricted shares forfeited
                    9                       88       (9 )              
Exercise of options to purchase common stock
    95       10       694                                               704  
Shares issued in non-vested stock award
    786       78       (78 )                                              
Acquisition of noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
                    (1,284 )                                     (716 )     (2,000 )
Distributions to partners of noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
                                                            (5,673 )     (5,673 )
Comprehensive income, net of income taxes:
                                                                       
Net income
                                    18,556                       3,985       22,541  
Foreign currency translation
                            (9,864 )                             159       (9,705 )
Pension and other postretirement plan unrecognized net loss, net of income tax benefit of $58
                            (147 )                                     (147 )
Net unrealized gain on securities, net of income tax expense of $31
                            78                                       78  
                                                                         
Total comprehensive (loss) income
                            (9,933 )     18,556                       4,144       12,767  
                                                                         
Balance as of June 30, 2010
    156,496     $ 15,650     $ 925,185     $ (2,490 )   $ 229,531       767     $ (77 )   $ 31,918     $ 1,199,717  
                                                                         
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
NOTE 1. ORGANIZATION AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION
 
The terms “we,” “our,” “ours,” “us” and “Company” refer to Covanta Holding Corporation and its subsidiaries; the term “Covanta Energy” refers to our subsidiary Covanta Energy Corporation and its subsidiaries.
 
Organization
 
We are one of the world’s largest owners and operators of infrastructure for the conversion of waste to energy (known as “energy-from-waste” or “EfW”), as well as other waste disposal and renewable energy production businesses. Energy-from-waste serves two key markets as both a sustainable waste disposal solution that is environmentally superior to landfilling and as a source of clean energy that reduces overall greenhouse gas emissions and is considered renewable under the laws of many states and under federal law. Our facilities are critical infrastructure assets that allow our customers, which are principally municipal entities, to provide an essential public service.
 
We operate and/or have ownership positions in 44 energy-from-waste facilities, which are primarily located in North America, and 18 additional energy generation facilities, including other renewable energy production facilities in North America (wood biomass, landfill gas and hydroelectric) and independent power production (“IPP”) facilities in Asia. We hold equity interests in energy-from-waste facilities in China and Italy. We also operate waste management infrastructure that is complementary to our core EfW business.
 
We have one reportable segment which is Americas and is comprised of waste and energy services operations primarily in the United States and Canada. For additional information, see Note 5. Financial Information by Business Segments.
 
In 2010, we adopted a plan to sell our interests in our fossil fuel independent power production facilities in the Philippines, India, and Bangladesh. During the first quarter of 2011, we completed the sale of our interests in a 510 megawatt (“MW”) (gross) coal-fired electric power generation facility in the Philippines (“Quezon”) and we completed the sale of our majority equity interests in a 106 MW (gross) heavy fuel-oil fired electric power generation facilities in Tamil Nadu, India (“Samalpatti”). In April 2011, we signed an agreement to sell our majority equity interests in our 106 MW (gross) heavy fuel-oil fired electric power generation facility, also in Tamil Nadu, India (“Madurai”). The remaining asset held for sale is our equity interest in a barge-mounted 126 MW (gross) diesel/natural gas-fired electric power generation facility located near Haripur, Bangladesh. See Note 3. Assets Held for Sale and Dispositions for additional information.
 
Basis of Presentation
 
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (including normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for fair presentation have been included in our financial statements. All intra-entity accounts and transactions have been eliminated. Operating results for the interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011. This Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying Notes in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2010 (“Form 10-K”).
 
We use the equity method to account for our investments for which we have the ability to exercise significant influence over the operating and financial policies of the investee. Consolidated net income includes our proportionate share of the net income or loss of these companies. Such amounts are classified as “equity in net income from unconsolidated investments” in our condensed consolidated financial statements. Investments in companies in which we do not have the ability to exercise significant influence are carried at the lower of cost or estimated realizable value. We monitor investments for other-than-temporary declines in value and make reductions when appropriate.
 
Reclassifications
 
As more fully described in Note 3. Assets Held for Sale and Dispositions, during the fourth quarter of 2010, the operations of our fossil fuel independent power production facilities held for sale met the criteria to be classified as discontinued operations. The assets and liabilities associated with these businesses are presented in our condensed consolidated balance sheets as


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
“Current Assets Held for Sale” and “Current Liabilities Held for Sale.” The results of operations of these businesses are included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations as “Income from discontinued operations, net of tax.” The cash flows of these businesses are also presented separately in our condensed consolidated statements of cash flows. All corresponding prior year periods presented in our condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been reclassified to reflect the discontinued operations presentation.
 
During the first quarter of 2011, we corrected our presentation of the condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2010 to adjust a portion of the excess of purchase price over par value for treasury stock transactions from additional paid-in capital to retained earnings. We have adjusted approximately $66 million to retained earnings from additional paid-in capital as of December 31, 2010. This change had no impact on total equity.
 
NOTE 2. RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
 
In May 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued guidance related to amendments to disclosures about fair value measurements. The amendments in this update improve the comparability of fair value measurements presented and disclosed in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards. We are required to adopt this standard for the first quarter of 2012. Early adoption is not permitted. We do not expect this accounting standard to have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
In June 2011, the FASB issued guidance related to the presentation of comprehensive income. This guidance eliminates the option to present components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. The amendments require that all other comprehensive income changes in stockholders’ equity be presented either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. The guidance does not change the items that must be reported in other comprehensive income or when an item of other comprehensive income must be reclassified to net income. The amendments do not affect how earnings per share is calculated or presented. We are required to adopt this standard for the first quarter of 2012, however early adoption is permitted. The amendments should be applied retrospectively. We are currently evaluating the presentational changes to our condensed consolidated financial statements required by this guidance.
 
NOTE 3. ASSETS HELD FOR SALE AND DISPOSITIONS
 
In 2010, we adopted a plan to sell our interests in our fossil fuel independent power production facilities in the Philippines, India, and Bangladesh.
 
During the first quarter of 2011, we completed the sale of our majority equity interests in a 106 MW (gross) heavy fuel-oil fired electric power generation facilities in Tamil Nadu, India (“Samalpatti”) and we completed the sale of our interests in a 510 MW (gross) coal-fired electric power generation facility in the Philippines (“Quezon”). The Quezon assets sold consisted of our entire interest in Covanta Philippines Operating, Inc., which provided operation and maintenance services to the facility, as well as our 26% ownership interest in the project company, Quezon Power, Inc. We received a combined total of cash proceeds of approximately $225 million, net of transaction costs.
 
During the second quarter of 2011, we signed an agreement with Samayanallur Power Investments Private Limited (“SPI”) to sell our interests in a 106 MW (gross) heavy fuel-oil fired electric power generation facility in Tamil Nadu, India (“Madurai”). The Madurai assets being sold include our entire interest in Covanta Madurai Operating Private Limited, which provides operation and maintenance services to the facility, as well as our approximately 77% ownership interest in the project company, Madurai Power Corporation Private Ltd. The project sells electrical output to the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (“TNEB”) pursuant to long-term agreements and TNEB’s obligations are guaranteed by the government of the state of Tamil Nadu. This transaction is expected to close during 2011, and is subject to customary approvals and closing conditions and to SPI’s obtaining financing.
 
The remaining asset held for sale is our equity interest in a barge-mounted 126 MW (gross) diesel/natural gas-fired electric power generation facility located near Haripur, Bangladesh.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
The assets and liabilities associated with these businesses are presented in our condensed consolidated balance sheets as “Current Assets Held for Sale” and “Current Liabilities Held for Sale.” The results of operations of these businesses are included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations as “Income from discontinued operations, net of tax.” The cash flows of these businesses are also presented separately in our condensed consolidated statements of cash flows. All corresponding prior year periods presented in our condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been reclassified to reflect the discontinued operations presentation.
 
The following table summarizes the operating results of the discontinued operations for the periods indicated (in thousands):
 
                                 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Revenues
  $ 22,715     $ 41,833     $ 68,885     $ 90,935  
Operating expenses, including net gain on disposal of assets held for sale and loss on assets held for sale (A)
  $ (20,894 )   $ (35,651 )   $ 78,149     $ (78,401 )
Income before income tax expense and equity in net income from unconsolidated investments
  $ 1,899     $ 6,519     $ 147,503     $ 13,232  
Equity in net income from unconsolidated investments
  $ 939     $ 6,422     $ 6,469     $ 11,434  
Income from discontinued operations, net of income tax expense of $913, $1,919, $3,106 and $3,926, respectively
  $ 1,924     $ 11,022     $ 150,866     $ 20,740  
 
  (A)  During the three and six months ended June 30, 2011, we recorded a net after-tax (loss) gain on disposal of assets held for sale of $(3.6) million and $132.0 million, respectively. We recorded a loss on assets held for sale of $7.8 million in 2010.
 
The following table sets forth the assets and liabilities of the assets held for sale included in the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
 
                 
    As of  
    June 30,
    December 31,
 
    2011     2010  
 
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 10,623     $ 14,207  
Restricted funds held in trust
    252       18,966  
Accounts receivable
    31,376       19,479  
Prepaid expenses and other assets
    10,915       26,326  
Property, plant and equipment, net
    5,412       30,206  
Investments in investees and joint ventures
    22,699       81,322  
Other long-term assets
          451  
                 
Assets held for sale
  $ 81,277     $ 190,957  
                 
Accounts payable
  $ 3,545     $ 2,976  
Accrued expenses and other
    1,860       11,547  
Project debt
    8,292       15,555  
Other noncurrent liabilities
    5,250       4,188  
                 
Liabilities held for sale
  $ 18,947     $ 34,266  
                 
 
NOTE 4. EARNINGS PER SHARE (“EPS”)
 
Per share data is based on the weighted average number of outstanding shares of our common stock, par value $0.10 per share, during the relevant period. Basic earnings per share are calculated using only the weighted average number of outstanding shares of common stock. Diluted earnings per share computations, as calculated under the treasury stock method, include the weighted average number of shares of additional outstanding common stock issuable for stock options, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units and warrants whether or not currently exercisable. Diluted earnings per share for all the periods presented does not include securities if their effect was anti-dilutive (in thousands, except per share amounts).
 


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
                                 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Net income (loss) from continuing operations
  $ 16,942     $ 15,479     $ 3,301     $ (534 )
Net income from discontinued operations
    1,198       10,310       148,332       19,090  
                                 
Net income attributable to Covanta Holding Corporation
  $ 18,140     $ 25,789     $ 151,633     $ 18,556  
                                 
Basic earnings per share:
                               
Weighted average basic common shares outstanding
    143,970       154,377       145,415       154,139  
                                 
Continuing operations
  $ 0.12     $ 0.10     $ 0.02     $  
Discontinued operations
    0.01       0.07       1.02       0.12  
                                 
Covanta Holding Corporation
  $ 0.13     $ 0.17     $ 1.04     $ 0.12  
                                 
Diluted earnings per share:
                               
Weighted average basic common shares outstanding
    143,970       154,377       145,415       154,139  
Dilutive effect of stock options
    706       386       640        
Dilutive effect of restricted stock
    262       263       268        
Dilutive effect of convertible debentures
                       
Dilutive effect of warrants
                       
                                 
Weighted average diluted common shares outstanding
    144,938       155,026       146,323       154,139  
                                 
Continuing operations
  $ 0.12     $ 0.10     $ 0.02     $ 0.00  
Discontinued operations
    0.01       0.07       1.02       0.12  
                                 
Covanta Holding Corporation
  $ 0.13     $ 0.17     $ 1.04     $ 0.12  
                                 
Securities excluded from the weighted average dilutive common shares outstanding because their inclusion would have been antidilutive:
                               
Stock options
    1,653       1,886       1,684       2,323  
                                 
Restricted stock
                      231  
                                 
Restricted stock units
                      25  
                                 
Warrants
    27,226       24,803       27,226       24,803  
                                 
 
In 2007, we issued 1.00% Senior Convertible Debentures due 2027 (the “Debentures”). The Debentures are convertible under certain circumstances if the closing sale price of our common stock exceeds a specified conversion price before February 1, 2025. The conversion rate for the Debentures is 38.9883 shares of our common stock per $1,000 principal amount of Debentures, which is equivalent to a conversion price of $25.65 per share. As of June 30, 2011, the Debentures did not have a dilutive effect on earnings per share because the average market price during the periods presented was below the strike price.
 
In 2009, we entered into privately negotiated warrant transactions in connection with the issuance of 3.25% Cash Convertible Senior Notes due 2014 (the “3.25% Notes”). These warrants could have a dilutive effect to the extent that the price of our common stock exceeds the applicable strike price of $23.24. As of June 30, 2011, the warrants did not have a dilutive effect on earnings per share because the average market price during the periods presented was below the strike price.

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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
 
NOTE 5. FINANCIAL INFORMATION BY BUSINESS SEGMENTS
 
We have one reportable segment, Americas, which is comprised of waste and energy services operations primarily in the United States and Canada. The results of our reportable segment are as follows (in thousands):
 
                         
    Americas     All Other(1)     Total  
 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2011:
                       
Operating revenues
  $   400,685     $   10,850     $   411,535  
Depreciation and amortization expense
    46,825       390       47,215  
Operating income (loss)
    57,099       (4,738 )     52,361  
Three Months Ended June 30, 2010:
                       
Operating revenues
  $ 382,637     $ 10,740     $ 393,377  
Depreciation and amortization expense
    45,979       419       46,398  
Operating income (loss)
    59,404       (9,108 )     50,296  
Six Months Ended June 30, 2011:
                       
Operating revenues
  $ 767,246     $ 21,059     $ 788,305  
Depreciation and amortization expense
    93,732       848       94,580  
Operating income (loss)
    63,631       (12,912 )     50,719  
Six Months Ended June 30, 2010:
                       
Operating revenues
  $ 739,924     $ 21,146     $ 761,070  
Depreciation and amortization expense
    94,000       836       94,836  
Operating income (loss)
    61,131       (15,216 )     45,915  
 
 
(1) All other is comprised of the financial results of our insurance subsidiaries’ operations and our remaining international assets that are not classified as assets held for sale. See Note 3. Assets Held for Sale and Dispositions.
 
NOTE 6. CHANGES IN CAPITALIZATION
 
Long-Term Debt
 
Long-term debt is as follows (in thousands):
 
                 
    As of  
    June 30,
    December 31,
 
    2011     2010  
 
7.25% Senior Notes due 2020
  $ 400,000     $ 400,000  
                 
3.25% Cash Convertible Senior Notes due 2014
    460,000       460,000  
Debt discount related to Cash Convertible Senior Notes
    (79,747 )     (91,212 )
Cash conversion option derivative at fair value
    90,724       115,994  
                 
3.25% Cash Convertible Senior Notes, net
    470,977       484,782  
                 
1.00% Senior Convertible Debentures due 2027
    51,188       57,289  
Debt discount related to Convertible Debentures
    (1,822 )     (3,720 )
                 
1.00% Senior Convertible Debentures, net
    49,366       53,569  
                 
Term Loan Facility due 2014
    622,375       625,625  
Other long-term debt
    301       435  
                 
Total
    1,543,019       1,564,411  
Less: current portion
    (56,041 )     (6,710 )
                 
Total long-term debt
  $   1,486,978     $   1,557,701  
                 
 
Credit Facilities
 
We have credit facilities which are comprised of a $300 million revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility”), a $320 million funded letter of credit facility (the “Funded L/C Facility”), and a $650 million term loan (the “Term Loan Facility”)


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
(collectively referred to as the “Credit Facilities”). As of June 30, 2011, we had available credit for liquidity as follows (in thousands):
 
                                 
    Total
      Outstanding Letters
   
    Available
      of Credit as of
  Available as of
    Under Facility   Maturing   June 30, 2011   June 30, 2011
 
Revolving Credit Facility (1)
  $  300,000       2013     $     $  300,000  
Funded L/C Facility
  $ 320,000       2014     $  281,091     $ 38,909  
 
 
(1) Up to $200 million of which may be utilized for letters of credit.
 
7.25% Senior Notes due 2020 (the “7.25% Notes”)
 
For specific criteria related to redemption features of the 7.25% Notes, refer to Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our Form 10-K.
 
3.25% Cash Convertible Senior Notes due 2014 (the “3.25% Notes”)
 
Under limited circumstances, the 3.25% Notes are convertible by the holders thereof into cash only, based on a conversion rate of 59.1871 shares of our common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 3.25% Notes (which represents a conversion price of approximately $16.90 per share) subject to certain customary adjustments as provided in the indenture for the 3.25% Notes. We will not deliver common stock (or any other securities) upon conversion under any circumstances.
 
In connection with the quarterly cash dividend payable on April 12, 2011, the conversion rate for the 3.25% Notes was adjusted to 59.4517 shares of our common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 3.25% Notes. The adjusted conversion rate is equivalent to an adjusted conversion price of $16.82 per share and became effective on May 22, 2011. For additional information related to the quarterly cash dividend, see the Equity discussion below.
 
For specific criteria related to contingent interest, conversion or redemption features of the 3.25% Notes and details related to the cash conversion option, cash convertible note hedge and warrants related to the 3.25% Notes, refer to Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our Form 10-K.
 
For details related to the fair value for the contingent interest feature, cash conversion option, and cash convertible note hedge related to the 3.25% Notes, see Note 12. Derivative Instruments.
 
1.00% Senior Convertible Debentures due 2027 (the “Debentures”)
 
In November 2010, we commenced a tender offer to purchase for cash any and all of our outstanding 1.00% Senior Convertible Debentures due 2027. We offered to purchase the Debentures at a purchase price of $990 for each $1,000 principal amount of Debentures. During the six months ended June 30, 2011, an additional $6.1 million of the Debentures were purchased. As of June 30, 2011, there were $51.2 million aggregate principal amount of the Debentures outstanding. We may purchase Debentures that remained outstanding following expiration of the tender offer in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions, through tender offers, exchange offers, by redemption or otherwise.
 
Under limited circumstances, prior to February 1, 2025, the Debentures are convertible by the holders into cash and shares of our common stock, if any, based on a conversion rate of 38.9883 shares of our common stock per $1,000 principal amount of Debentures, (which represents a conversion price of approximately $25.65 per share) or 1,995,733 issuable shares. As of June 30, 2011, if the Debentures were converted, no shares would have been issued since the trading price of our common stock was below the conversion price of the Debentures.
 
For specific criteria related to contingent interest, conversion or redemption features of the Debentures, refer to Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our Form 10-K.
 
For details related to the fair value for the contingent interest feature related to the Debentures, see Note 12. Derivative Instruments.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
Debt Discount for the 3.25% Notes and the Debentures
 
The debt discount related to the 3.25% Notes and the Debentures is accreted over their respective terms and recognized as non-cash convertible debt related expense. The following table details the amount of the accretion of debt discount as of June 30, 2011 expected to be included in our condensed consolidated financial statements for each of the periods indicated (in millions):
 
                                 
    For the Years Ended  
    Remainder of
                   
    2011     2012     2013     2014  
 
3.25% Cash Convertible Senior Notes due 2014
  $ 12.0     $ 26.0     $ 28.8     $ 12.9  
1.00% Senior Convertible Debentures due 2027 (1)
  $ 1.5     $ 0.3     $     $  
 
(1) At our option, the Debentures are subject to redemption at any time on or after February 1, 2012, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Debentures being redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest. In addition, holders may require us to repurchase their Debentures on February 1, 2012, February 1, 2017, and February 1, 2022, in whole or in part, for cash at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Debentures being repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest. For purposes of this chart, we have assumed that the Debentures will be repurchased pursuant to the holders’ option on February 1, 2012.
 
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
 
During the six months ended June 30, 2011, we recorded a loss on extinguishment of debt of $0.4 million related to the additional $6.1 million of the outstanding Debentures purchased under the tender offer. The loss on extinguishment of debt was comprised of the difference between the fair value and carrying value of the liability component of the Debentures tendered.
 
Equity
 
During the six months ended June 30, 2011, we granted 743,393 restricted stock awards and 36,210 restricted stock units. For information related to stock-based award plans, see Note 10. Stock-Based Compensation.
 
During the six months ended June 30, 2011, we repurchased 216,605 shares of our common stock in connection with tax withholdings for vested stock awards.
 
During first and second quarters of 2011, the Board of Directors approved a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.075 per share which was paid on April 12, 2011 and July 6, 2011, respectively. During the second quarter of 2010, the Board of Directors declared a special cash dividend of $1.50 per share which was paid on July 20, 2010.
 
Dividends declared to stockholders are as follows (in millions, except per share amounts):
 
                                 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Per Share
  $ 0.075     $ 1.50     $ 0.15     $ 1.50  
Regular cash dividend declared to stockholders
  $ 10.9     $     $ 21.8     $  
Special cash dividend declared to stockholders
  $     $ 232.7     $     $ 232.7  
 
For the six months ended June 30, 2011, the Board of Directors approved an additional $150 million share repurchase authorization, bringing the total authorized amount since the second quarter of 2010 to $300 million. Under the program, common stock repurchases may be made in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions from time to time, or by other available methods, at management’s discretion in accordance with applicable federal securities laws. The timing and amounts of any repurchases will depend on many factors, including our capital structure, the market price of our common stock and overall market conditions. As of June 30, 2011, the amount remaining under our currently authorized share repurchase program was $81 million.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
Common stock repurchased is as follows (in millions, except per share amounts):
 
Common Stock Repurchased
 
                         
                Weighted
 
          Shares
    Average Cost
 
    Amount     Repurchased     per Share  
 
Three months ended March 31, 2011
  $           54.4       3.2     $        16.84  
Three months ended June 30, 2011 (1)
  $ 70.0       4.2     $ 16.58  
                         
Six months ended June 30, 2011
  $ 124.4       7.4     $ 16.69  
                         
 
(1) Approximately $1.3 million of common stock repurchased during the three months ended June 30, 2011 was paid in July 2011.
 
NOTE 7. INCOME TAXES
 
We record our interim tax provision based upon our estimated annual effective tax rate and account for the tax effects of discrete events in the period in which they occur. We file a federal consolidated income tax return with our eligible subsidiaries. Our federal consolidated income tax return also includes the taxable results of certain grantor trusts described below.
 
We currently estimate our annual effective tax rate for the year ending December 31, 2011 to be approximately 39.6%. We review the annual effective tax rate on a quarterly basis as projections are revised and laws are enacted. The effective income tax rate was 20.6% and 59.5% for the six months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The decrease in the effective tax rate is primarily due to the impact of state tax law changes enacted in the current year quarter on deferred state taxes and to the impact of certain foreign activities in the comparative prior year quarter. The liability for uncertain tax positions, exclusive of interest and penalties, was $130.1 million as of both June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010. Included in the balance of unrecognized tax benefits as of June 30, 2011 are potential benefits of $130.1 million that, if recognized, would impact the effective tax rate. Acquisition related reserves and some other reserves in the liability for uncertain tax positions may decrease by approximately $17.9 million in the next six months with respect to the expiration of statutes relating to Covanta Energy pre-emergence tax matters.
 
For the three months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, we recognized expenses of $0.2 million and $0, respectively, and for the six months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, we recognized expenses of $0.7 million and a benefit of $1.7 million, respectively, for interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions. As of June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010, we had accrued interest and penalties associated with liabilities for unrecognized tax positions of $8.1 million and $7.3 million, respectively. We continue to reflect interest accrued on uncertain tax positions and penalties as part of the tax provision.
 
In the ordinary course of our business, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and state tax authorities will periodically audit our federal and state tax returns. As issues are examined by the IRS and state auditors, we may decide to adjust the existing liability for uncertain tax positions for issues that were not previously deemed an exposure. Federal income tax returns for Covanta Energy are closed for the years through 2003. However, to the extent net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) are utilized from earlier years, federal income tax returns for Covanta Holding Corporation, formerly known as Danielson Holding Corporation, are still open. State income tax returns are generally subject to examination for a period of three to five years after the filing of the respective return. The state impact of any federal changes remains subject to examination by various states for a period of up to one year after formal notification to the states. We have various state income tax returns in the process of examination, administrative appeals or litigation.
 
Our NOLs predominantly arose from our predecessor insurance entities (which were subsidiaries of our predecessor, formerly named Mission Insurance Group, Inc., “Mission”). These Mission insurance entities have been in state insolvency proceedings in California and Missouri since the late 1980’s. The amount of NOLs available to us will be reduced by any taxable income or increased by any taxable losses generated by current members of our consolidated tax group, which include grantor trusts associated with the Mission insurance entities.
 
While we cannot predict what amounts, if any, may be includable in taxable income as a result of the final administration of these grantor trusts, substantial actions toward such final administration have been taken and we believe that neither


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
arrangements with the California Commissioner nor the final administration by the Missouri Director will result in a material reduction in available NOLs.
 
We had consolidated federal NOLs estimated to be approximately $396.9 million for federal income tax purposes as of December 31, 2010, based on the tax returns as filed. The federal NOLs will expire in various amounts from December 31, 2023 through December 31, 2030, if not used. In addition to the consolidated federal NOLs, as of December 31, 2010, we had state NOL carryforwards of approximately $188.8 million, which expire between 2011 and 2027, capital loss carryforwards of $0.2 million expiring in 2013, and additional federal credit carryforwards, including production tax credits and minimum tax credits, of $45.6 million. These deferred tax assets are offset by a valuation allowance of approximately $19.8 million.
 
For further information, refer to Note 17. Income Taxes of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our Form 10-K.
 
NOTE 8.  SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
 
Operating Costs
 
Pass through costs
 
Pass through costs are costs for which we receive a direct contractually committed reimbursement from the municipal client which sponsors an energy-from-waste project. These costs generally include utility charges, insurance premiums, ash residue transportation and disposal and certain chemical costs. These costs are recorded net of municipal client reimbursements in our condensed consolidated financial statements. Total pass through costs were $19.6 million and $23.0 million for the three months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively and $42.7 million and $43.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
 
Other operating expenses
 
The components of other operating expenses are as follows (in thousands):
 
                                 
    Other Operating Expenses  
    For the Three Months
    For the Six Months
 
    Ended June 30,     Ended June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Construction expense
  $ 29,805     $ 20,654     $ 55,910     $ 41,139  
Insurance subsidiary operating expenses (1)
    4,170       4,472       8,051       8,542  
Foreign exchange gain
    (2,114 )     (10 )     (2,105 )     (999 )
Other
    (778 )     32       (3,440 )     (6 )
                                 
Total other operating expenses
  $  31,083     $  25,148     $  58,416     $  48,676  
                                 
 
(1) Insurance subsidiary operating expenses are primarily comprised of incurred but not reported loss reserves, loss adjustment expenses and policy acquisition costs.
 
Amortization of waste, service and energy contracts
 
Our waste, service and energy contracts are intangible assets and liabilities relating to long-term operating contracts at acquired facilities and are recorded upon acquisition at their estimated fair market values based upon discounted cash flows. Intangible assets and liabilities are amortized using the straight line method over their remaining useful lives. The following table details the amount of the actual/estimated amortization expense and contra-expense associated with these intangible assets


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
and liabilities as of June 30, 2011 included or expected to be included in our condensed consolidated statement of income for each of the years indicated (in thousands):
 
                 
    Waste, Service and
    Waste and Service
 
    Energy Contracts
    Contracts
 
    (Amortization Expense)     (Contra-Expense)  
 
Six Months ended June 30, 2011
  $ 19,488     $ (6,203 )
                 
Remainder of 2011
  $ 18,382     $ (6,205 )
2012
    35,770       (12,412 )
2013
    32,200       (12,390 )
2014
    29,302       (12,500 )
2015
    25,943       (8,187 )
2016
    23,304       (7,906 )
Thereafter
    288,981       (22,829 )
                 
Total
  $ 453,882     $ (82,429 )
                 
 
Non-Cash Convertible Debt Related Expense
 
The components of non-cash convertible debt related expense are as follows (in thousands):
 
                                 
    Non-Cash Convertible Debt Related Expense  
    For the Three Months
    For the Six Months
 
    Ended June 30,     Ended June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Debt discount accretion related to the 3.25% Notes
  $ 5,805     $ 5,247     $ 11,465     $ 10,363  
Debt discount accretion related to the Debentures
    758       5,146       1,533       10,200  
Fair value changes related to the cash convertible note hedge
    14,620       7,045       23,857       43,941  
Fair value changes related to the cash conversion option derivative
    (14,758 )     (5,704 )     (25,270 )     (44,523 )
                                 
Total non-cash convertible debt related expense
  $  6,425     $  11,734     $  11,585     $  19,981  
                                 
 
Comprehensive Income
 
The components of comprehensive income are as follows (in thousands):
 
                                 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Comprehensive income, net of income taxes:
                               
Net income attributable to Covanta Holding Corporation
  $  18,140     $  25,789     $  151,633     $  18,556  
                                 
Foreign currency translation
    938       (8,473 )     8,332       (9,864 )
Pension and other postretirement plan unrecognized net loss
    (100 )     (73 )     (200 )     (147 )
Net unrealized loss on derivatives
    (142 )           (223 )      
Net unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities
    264       (98 )     365       78  
                                 
Other comprehensive (loss) income attributable to Covanta Holding Corporation
    960       (8,644 )     8,274       (9,933 )
                                 
Comprehensive income attributable to Covanta Holding Corporation
  $ 19,100     $ 17,145     $ 159,907     $ 8,623  
                                 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
  $ 1,535     $ 1,485     $ 3,435     $ 3,985  
Other comprehensive (loss) income — Foreign currency translation
    (23 )     (806 )     (125 )     159  
                                 
Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
  $ 1,512     $ 679     $ 3,310     $ 4,144  
                                 


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
The components of net unrealized foreign currency translation consist of the following (in thousands, net of tax):
 
                                 
    Three Months
    Six Months
 
    Ended June 30,     Ended June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Net unrealized foreign currency translation adjustments arising during the period
  $ 2,285     $ (8,473 )   $ 9,679     $ (9,864 )
Reclassification adjustment for foreign currency translation included in net income
    (1,347 )           (1,347 )      
                                 
Net unrealized foreign currency translation adjustment
  $ 938     $ (8,473 )   $ 8,332     $ (9,864 )
                                 
 
NOTE 9.  BENEFIT OBLIGATIONS
 
Pension and Other Benefit Obligations
 
The components of net periodic (credit) benefit costs are as follows (in thousands):
 
                                                                 
    Pension Benefits     Other Post-Retirement Benefits  
    For the Three
    For the Six
    For the Three
    For the Six
 
    Months Ended
    Months Ended
    Months Ended
    Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,     June 30,     June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010     2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Interest cost
  $   1,112     $   1,055     $   2,224     $   2,111     $   83     $   119     $   166     $   238  
Expected return on plan assets
    (1,302 )     (1,237 )     (2,604 )     (2,474 )                        
Amortization of net prior service cost
    (83 )     (82 )     (165 )     (164 )                        
Amortization of actuarial gain
    (8 )     (15 )     (15 )     (30 )     (76 )     (25 )     (152 )     (50 )
                                                                 
Net periodic benefit cost
  $ (281 )   $ (279 )   $ (560 )   $ (557 )   $ 7     $ 94     $ 14     $ 188  
                                                                 
 
Effective December 31, 2005, we froze service accruals in the defined benefit pension plan for employees in the United States who did not participate in retirement plans offered by collective bargaining units or our insurance subsidiaries. All active employees who were eligible participants in the defined benefit pension plan, as of December 31, 2005, became 100% vested and have a non-forfeitable right to these benefits as of such date. During the second quarter of 2011, we informed employees who were eligible participants in the pension plan of our plan to terminate the pension plan, subject to approval by the IRS, with the intention of fully distributing plan assets as promptly as practicable following such approval. As of December 2010, the fair value of plan assets exceeded accumulated benefit obligations for the pension plan. We expect any final settlement contribution to the plan to be immaterial.
 
Defined Contribution Plans
 
Substantially all of our employees in the United States are eligible to participate in defined contribution plans we sponsor. Our costs related to defined contribution plans were $3.6 million and $3.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively and $7.2 million and $8.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
 
NOTE 10.  STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
 
During the six months ended June 30, 2011, we awarded certain employees 707,393 restricted stock awards. The restricted stock awards will be expensed over the requisite service period, subject to an assumed 12% average forfeiture rate. The terms of the restricted stock awards include vesting provisions based solely on continued service. If the service criteria are satisfied, the restricted stock awards vest during March of 2012, 2013 and 2014.
 
On May 5, 2011, in accordance with our existing program for annual director compensation, we awarded 36,000 shares of restricted stock under the Directors Plan. We determined that the service vesting condition of these restricted stock awards to be non-substantive and, in accordance with accounting principles for stock compensation, recorded the entire fair value of the award as compensation expense on the grant date.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
During the six months ended June 30, 2011, we awarded certain employees 36,210 restricted stock units in connection with specified projects. Vesting for these restricted stock units will occur at the earlier to three years or upon satisfactory completion of such projects.
 
Compensation expense related to our stock-based awards totaled $4.4 million and $9.0 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2011, respectively and $5.9 million and $9.4 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2010, respectively.
 
As of June 30, 2011, we had approximately $15.2 million, $4.8 million and $0.6 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to our unvested restricted stock, unvested restricted stock units, and unvested stock options, respectively. We expect this compensation expense to be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately 1.4 years for our unvested restricted stock awards, approximately 2 years for our unvested RSUs and approximately 1 year for our unvested stock options.
 
NOTE 11.  FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
 
Fair Value Measurements
 
The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair value of each class of financial instruments:
 
  •  For cash and cash equivalents, restricted funds, and marketable securities, the carrying value of these amounts is a reasonable estimate of their fair value. The fair value of restricted funds held in trust is based on quoted market prices of the investments held by the trustee.
 
  •  Fair values for long-term debt and project debt are determined using quoted market prices.
 
  •  The fair value of the Note Hedge and the Cash Conversion Option are determined using an option pricing model based on observable inputs such as implied volatility, risk free interest rate, and other factors. The fair value of the Note Hedge is adjusted to reflect counterparty risk of non-performance, and is based on the counterparty’s credit spread in the credit derivatives market. The contingent interest features related to the Debentures and the 3.25% Notes are valued quarterly using the present value of expected cash flow models incorporating the probabilities of the contingent events occurring.
 
The estimated fair value amounts have been determined using available market information and appropriate valuation methodologies. However, considerable judgment is necessarily required in interpreting market data to develop estimates of fair value. Accordingly, the estimates presented herein are not necessarily indicative of the amounts that we would realize in a current market exchange. The fair-value estimates presented herein are based on pertinent information available to us as of June 30, 2011. However, such amounts have not been comprehensively revalued for purposes of these financial statements since June 30, 2011, and current estimates of fair value may differ significantly from the amounts presented herein.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
The following table presents information about the fair value measurement of our assets and liabilities as of June 30, 2011:
 
                                         
                Fair Value Measurements at Reporting Date Using  
                Quoted Prices in
          Significant
 
    As of June 30, 2011     Active Markets for
    Significant Other
    Unobservable
 
Financial Instruments Recorded at Fair Value
  Carrying
    Estimated
    Identical Assets
    Observable Inputs
    Inputs
 
on a Recurring Basis:   Amount     Fair Value     (Level 1)     (Level 2)     (Level 3)  
    (In thousands)  
 
Assets:
                                       
Cash and cash equivalents:
                                       
Bank deposits and certificates of deposit
  $ 203,021     $ 203,021     $ 203,021     $     $  
Money market funds
    32,040       32,040       32,040              
                                         
Total cash and cash equivalents:
    235,061       235,061       235,061              
Restricted funds held in trust:
                                       
Bank deposits and certificates of deposit
    3,679       3,679       3,679              
Money market funds
    133,671       133,671       133,671              
U.S. Treasury/Agency obligations (a)
    15,953       15,953       15,953              
State and municipal obligations
    9,866       9,866       9,866              
Commercial paper/Guaranteed investment contracts/Repurchase agreements
    55,792       56,210       56,210              
                                         
Total restricted funds held in trust:
    218,961       219,379       219,379              
Restricted funds — other:
                                       
Bank deposits and certificates of deposit (b)
    21,804       21,804       21,804              
Money market funds (c)
    15,155       15,155       15,155              
                                         
Total restricted funds other:
    36,959       36,959       36,959              
Investments:
                                       
Mutual and bond funds (b)
    1,925       1,876       1,876              
Investments available for sale:
                                       
U.S. Treasury/Agency obligations (d)
    5,448       5,448       5,448              
Residential mortgage-backed securities (d)
    5,166       5,166       5,166              
Other government obligations (d)
    4,185       4,185       4,185              
Corporate investments (d)
    12,735       12,735       12,735              
Equity securities (c)
    1,354       1,354       1,354              
                                         
Total investments:
    30,813       30,764       30,764              
Derivative Asset — Note Hedge
    88,542       88,542             88,542        
                                         
Total assets:
  $     610,336     $   610,705     $     522,163     $     88,542     $          —  
                                         
Liabilities:
                                       
Derivative Liability — Energy Hedges
  $ 805     $ 805     $     $ 805     $  
Derivative Liability — Cash Conversion Option
    90,724       90,724             90,724        
Derivative Liabilities — Contingent interest features of the Notes and Debentures
    0       0             0        
                                         
Total liabilities:
  $ 91,529     $      91,529     $     $      91,529     $  
                                         
 
                                         
Financial Instruments Recorded at Carrying Amount:                              
 
Assets:
                                       
Accounts receivables (e)
  $ 271,999     $ 271,999                          
Liabilities:
                                       
Long-term debt (excluding Cash Conversion Option)
  $ 1,452,295     $ 1,513,701                          
Project debt
  $ 733,985     $ 749,073                          
 
(a) The U.S. Treasury/Agency obligations in restricted funds held in trust are primarily comprised of Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation securities at fair value.
(b) Included in other noncurrent assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
(c) Included in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
(d) Included in investments in fixed maturities at market in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
(e) Includes $24.2 million of noncurrent receivables in other noncurrent assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
 
The following table presents information about the fair value measurement of our assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2010:
 
                                         
                Fair Value Measurements at Reporting Date Using  
                Quoted Prices in
    Significant Other
    Significant
 
    As of December 31, 2010     Active Markets for
    Observable
    Unobservable
 
Financial Instruments Recorded at Fair Value
  Carrying
    Estimated
    Identical Assets
    Inputs
    Inputs
 
on a Recurring Basis:   Amount     Fair Value     (Level 1)     (Level 2)     (Level 3)  
    (In thousands)  
 
Assets:
                                       
Cash and cash equivalents:
                                       
Bank deposits and certificates of deposit
  $ 48,165     $ 48,165     $ 48,165     $     $  
Money market funds
    78,274       78,274       78,274              
                                         
Total cash and cash equivalents:
    126,439       126,439       126,439              
Restricted funds held in trust:
                                       
Bank deposits and certificates of deposit
    3,892       3,885       3,885              
Money market funds
    117,183       117,183       117,183              
U.S. Treasury/Agency obligations (a)
    56,340       56,335       56,335              
State and municipal obligations
    7,144       7,144       7,144              
Commercial paper/Guaranteed investment contracts/Repurchase agreements
    48,433       48,698       48,698              
                                         
Total restricted funds held in trust:
    232,992       233,245       233,245              
Restricted funds — other:
                                       
Bank deposits and certificates of deposit (b)
    21,721       21,721       21,721              
Money market funds (c)
    10,876       10,876       10,876              
U.S. Treasury/Agency obligations (c)
    499       499       499              
Residential mortgage-backed securities (c)
    1,382       1,382       1,382              
Other government obligations (c)
    991       991       991              
Corporate investments (c)
    509       509       509              
                                         
Total restricted funds other:
    35,978       35,978       35,978              
Investments:
                                       
Mutual and bond funds (b)
    2,328       2,602       2,602              
Investments available for sale:
                                       
U.S. Treasury/Agency obligations (d)
    6,069       6,069       6,069              
Residential mortgage-backed securities (d)
    4,470       4,470       4,470              
Other government obligations (d)
    2,375       2,375       2,375              
Corporate investments (d)
    16,108       16,108       16,108              
Equity securities (c)
    1,284       1,284       1,284              
                                         
Total investments:
    32,634       32,908       32,908              
Derivative Asset — Note Hedge
    112,400       112,400             112,400        
                                         
Total assets:
  $ 540,443     $ 540,970     $     428,570     $     112,400     $          —  
                                         
Liabilities:
                                       
Derivative Liability — Energy Hedges
  $ 436     $ 436     $     $ 436     $  
Derivative Liability — Cash Conversion Option
    115,994       115,994             115,994        
Derivative Liabilities — Contingent interest features of the 3.25% Notes and Debentures
    0       0             0        
                                         
Total liabilities:
  $ 116,430     $ 116,430     $     $ 116,430     $  
                                         
                                         
Financial Instruments Recorded at Carrying Amount:
                                       
Assets:
                                       
Accounts receivables (e)
  $ 292,752     $ 292,752                          
Liabilities:
                                       
Long-term debt (excluding Cash Conversion Option)
  $   1,448,417     $   1,497,208                          
Project debt
  $ 803,303     $ 823,310                          
 
(a) The U.S. Treasury/Agency obligations in restricted funds held in trust are primarily comprised of Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation securities at fair value.
(b) Included in other noncurrent assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
(c) Included in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
(d) Included in investments in fixed maturities at market in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
(e) Includes $24.9 million of noncurrent receivables in other noncurrent assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
 
Investments
 
Our insurance subsidiaries’ fixed maturity debt and equity securities portfolio are classified as “available-for-sale” and are carried at fair value. Equity securities that are traded on a national securities exchange are stated at the last reported sales price on the day of valuation. Debt securities values are determined by third party matrix pricing based on the last days trading activity. Changes in fair values are credited or charged directly to Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“AOCI”) in the condensed consolidated statements of equity as unrealized gains or losses, respectively. Investment gains or losses realized on the sale of securities are determined using the specific identification method. Realized gains and losses are recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of income based on the amortized cost of fixed maturities and the cost basis for equity securities on the date of trade, subject to any previous adjustments for other-than-temporary declines. Other-than-temporary declines in fair value are recorded as realized losses in the condensed consolidated statements of income to the extent they relate to credit losses, and to AOCI to the extent they are related to other factors. The cost basis of the security is also reduced. We consider the following factors in determining whether declines in the fair value of securities are other-than-temporary:
 
  •  the significance of the decline in fair value compared to the cost basis;
 
  •  the time period during which there has been a significant decline in fair value;
 
  •  whether the unrealized loss is credit-driven or a result of changes in market interest rates;
 
  •  a fundamental analysis of the business prospects and financial condition of the issuer; and
 
  •  our ability and intent to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value.
 
Other investments, such as investments in companies in which we do not have the ability to exercise significant influence, are carried at the lower of cost or estimated realizable value.
 
The cost or amortized cost, unrealized gains, unrealized losses and the fair value of our investments categorized by type of security, were as follows (in thousands):
 
                                                                 
    As of June 30, 2011     As of December 31, 2010  
    Cost or
                      Cost or
                   
    Amortized
    Unrealized
    Unrealized
    Fair
    Amortized
    Unrealized
    Unrealized
    Fair
 
    Cost     Gain     Loss     Value     Cost     Gain     Loss     Value  
 
Current investments:
                                                               
Fixed maturities
  $     $     $     $     $     $     $     $  
Equity securities — insurance business
    993       365       4       1,354       993       302       11       1,284  
                                                                 
Total current investments
  $ 993     $ 365     $ 4     $ 1,354     $ 993     $ 302     $ 11     $ 1,284  
                                                                 
Noncurrent investments:
                                                               
Fixed maturities — insurance business:
                                                               
U.S. government obligations
  $ 305     $ 1     $     $ 306     $ 307     $     $ 4     $ 303  
U.S. government agencies
    5,077       70       5       5,142       5,713       72       19       5,766  
Residential mortgage-backed securities
    5,099       79       12       5,166       4,417       92       39       4,470  
Other government obligations
    3,942       272       29       4,185       2,331       87       43       2,375  
Corporate investments
    12,338       445       48       12,735       15,769       454       115       16,108  
                                                                 
Total fixed maturities — insurance business
    26,761       867       94       27,534       28,537       705       220       29,022  
Mutual and bond funds
    1,925             49       1,876       2,328       274             2,602  
                                                                 
Total noncurrent investments
  $  28,686     $  867     $  143     $   29,410     $  30,865     $  979     $  220     $   31,624  
                                                                 


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
The following table sets forth a summary of temporarily impaired investments held by our insurance subsidiary (in thousands):
 
                                 
    As of June 30, 2011     As of December 31, 2010  
    Fair
    Unrealized
    Fair
    Unrealized
 
Description of Investments   Value     Losses     Value     Losses  
 
U.S. Treasury and other direct U.S. Government obligations
  $ 1,055     $ 5     $ 1,215     $ 23  
Federal agency mortgage-backed securities
    2,013       12       2,070       39  
Other government obligations
    977       29       936       43  
Corporate bonds
    3,657       48       3,266       115  
                                 
Total fixed maturities
    7,702       94       7,487       220  
Equity securities
    110       4       167       11  
                                 
Total temporarily impaired investments
  $   7,812     $   98     $   7,654     $   231  
                                 
 
The number of U.S. Treasury and federal agency obligations, mortgage-backed securities, other government obligations, and corporate bonds temporarily impaired are 3, 3, 2, and 14, respectively. As of June 30, 2011, all of the temporarily impaired fixed maturity investments had maturities greater than 12 months.
 
Our fixed maturities held by our insurance subsidiary include mortgage-backed securities and collateralized mortgage obligations, collectively (“MBS”) representing 18.8%, and 15.4% of the total fixed maturities as of June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010, respectively. Our MBS holdings are issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or the Government National Mortgage Association all of which are rated “AAA” by Moody’s Investors Services. MBS and callable bonds, in contrast to other bonds, are more sensitive to market value declines in a rising interest rate environment than to market value increases in a declining interest rate environment.
 
The expected maturities of fixed maturity securities, by amortized cost and fair value are shown below (in thousands):
 
                 
    As of June 30, 2011  
    Amortized Cost     Fair Value  
 
Available-for-sale:
               
One year or less
  $ 3,106     $ 3,154  
Over one year to five years
    19,532       20,276  
Over five years to ten years
    4,123       4,104  
More than ten years
           
                 
Total fixed maturities
  $       26,761     $       27,534  
                 
 
The following reflects the change in net unrealized gain on securities included as a separate component of AOCI in the condensed consolidated statements of equity (in thousands, net of tax):
 
                                 
    For the Three Months
    For the Six Months
 
    Ended June 30,     Ended June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Fixed maturities, net
  $ 214     $     $ 288     $ 10  
Equity securities, net
    (1 )     (74 )     70       (48 )
Mutual and bond funds
          (53 )     (49 )     75  
                                 
Change in net unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities
    213       (127 )     309       37  
Money market funds — restricted
    51       29       56       41  
                                 
Change in net unrealized gain on securities
  $   264     $   (98 )   $   365     $   78  
                                 


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
The components of net unrealized gain on securities consist of the following (in thousands, net of tax):
 
                                 
    For the Three Months
    For the Six Months
 
    Ended June 30,     Ended June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Net unrealized holding gain arising during the period
  $ 81     $ (135 )   $ 177     $ 29  
Reclassification adjustment for net realized losses included in net income
    132       8       132       8  
                                 
Net unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities
    213       (127 )     309       37  
Net unrealized holding gain arising during the period — restricted
    51       29       56       41  
                                 
Net unrealized gain on securities
  $   264     $   (98 )   $   365     $   78  
                                 
 
NOTE 12.  DERIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS
 
The following disclosures summarize the fair value of derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments in the condensed consolidated balance sheets and the effect of changes in fair value related to those derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments on the condensed consolidated statements of income.
 
                     
Derivative Instruments Not Designated
      Fair Value as of  
As Hedging Instruments   Balance Sheet Location   June 30, 2011     December 31, 2010  
        (In thousands)  
 
Asset Derivatives:
                   
Note Hedge
  Other noncurrent assets   $   88,542     $   112,400  
Liability Derivatives:
                   
Cash Conversion Option
  Long-term debt   $ 90,724     $ 115,994  
Contingent interest features of the Debentures and 3.25% Notes
  Other noncurrent liabilities   $ 0     $ 0  
 
                                     
        Amount of Gain or (Loss) Recognized in Income on Derivative  
Effect on Income of Derivative
  Location of Gain or
  For the Three
    For the Three
    For the Six
    For the Six
 
Instruments Not Designated
  (Loss) Recognized in
  Months Ended
    Months Ended
    Months Ended
    Months Ended
 
As Hedging Instruments   Income on Derivatives   June 30, 2011     June 30, 2010     June 30, 2011     June 30, 2010  
        (In thousands)  
 
Note Hedge
 
Non-cash convertible debt related expense
  $ (14,620 )   $ (7,045 )   $ (23,857 )   $ (43,941 )
Cash Conversion Option
 
Non-cash convertible debt related expense
    14,758       5,704       25,270       44,523  
Contingent interest features of the Debentures and Notes
 
Non-cash convertible debt related expense
                       
                                     
Effect on income of derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments
  $ 138     $ (1,341 )   $ 1,413     $ 582  
                                 
 
Cash Conversion Option, Note Hedge and Contingent Interest features related to the 3.25% Cash Convertible Senior Notes
 
The Cash Conversion Option is a derivative instrument which is recorded at fair value quarterly with any change in fair value being recognized in our condensed consolidated statements of income as non-cash convertible debt related expense. The Note Hedge is accounted for as a derivative instrument and as such, is recorded at fair value quarterly with any change in fair value being recognized in our condensed consolidated statements of income as non-cash convertible debt related expense.
 
We expect the gain or loss associated with changes to the valuation of the Note Hedge to substantially offset the gain or loss associated with changes to the valuation of the Cash Conversion Option. However, they will not be completely offsetting as a result of changes in the credit valuation adjustment related to the Note Hedge. Our most significant credit exposure arises from the Note Hedge. The fair value of the Note Hedge reflects the maximum loss that would be incurred should the Option Counterparties fail to perform according to the terms of the Note Hedge agreement. For specific details related to the Cash


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
Conversion Option, Note Hedge and contingent interest features of the 3.25% Notes, refer to Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our Form 10-K.
 
Contingent Interest feature of the 1.00% Senior Convertible Debentures
 
The contingent interest feature in the Debentures is an embedded derivative instrument. The first contingent cash interest payment period would not commence until February 1, 2012, and the fair value for the embedded derivative was zero as of June 30, 2011. For specific criteria related to the contingent interest features of the Debentures, refer to Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our Form 10-K.
 
Energy Price Risk
 
Following the expiration of certain long-term energy sales contracts, we may have exposure to market risk, and therefore revenue fluctuations, in energy markets. We may enter into contractual arrangements that will mitigate our exposure to this volatility through a variety of hedging techniques. Our efforts in this regard will involve only mitigation of price volatility for the energy we produce, and will not involve speculative energy trading. Consequently, we have entered into swap agreements with various financial institutions to hedge our exposure to market risk. As of June 30, 2011, the fair value of the energy derivatives of $0.8 million, pre-tax, was recorded as a current liability and as a component of AOCI.
 
NOTE 13.  COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
 
We and/or our subsidiaries are party to a number of claims, lawsuits and pending actions, most of which are routine and all of which are incidental to our business. We assess the likelihood of potential losses on an ongoing basis and when losses are considered probable and reasonably estimable, record as a loss an estimate of the outcome. If we can only estimate the range of a possible loss, an amount representing the low end of the range of possible outcomes is recorded. The final consequences of these proceedings are not presently determinable with certainty.
 
Environmental Matters
 
Our operations are subject to environmental regulatory laws and environmental remediation laws. Although our operations are occasionally subject to proceedings and orders pertaining to emissions into the environment and other environmental violations, which may result in fines, penalties, damages or other sanctions, we believe that we are in substantial compliance with existing environmental laws and regulations.
 
We may be identified, along with other entities, as being among parties potentially responsible for contribution to costs associated with the correction and remediation of environmental conditions at disposal sites subject to federal and/or analogous state laws. In certain instances, we may be exposed to joint and several liabilities for remedial action or damages. Our liability in connection with such environmental claims will depend on many factors, including our volumetric share of waste, the total cost of remediation, and the financial viability of other companies that also sent waste to a given site and, in the case of divested operations, its contractual arrangement with the purchaser of such operations.
 
The potential costs related to the matters described below and the possible impact on future operations are uncertain due in part to the complexity of governmental laws and regulations and their interpretations, the varying costs and effectiveness of cleanup technologies, the uncertain level of insurance or other types of recovery and the questionable level of our responsibility. Although the ultimate outcome and expense of any litigation, including environmental remediation, is uncertain, we believe that the following proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our condensed consolidated financial position or results of operations.
 
Wallingford Matter. In 2010, compliance stack testing indicated that one of the three combustion units at the Wallingford energy-from-waste facility had exceeded the permit limit for dioxin/furan emissions. We promptly shut down the affected combustion unit and self-reported the test results to the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (“CTDEP”). On August 18, 2010, the Connecticut Office of the Attorney General (“AG”), on behalf of the CTDEP, commenced an enforcement action in Connecticut Superior Court (Hartford) with respect to the results of the compliance stack testing. We, the CTDEP and


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Continued)
 
AG reached agreement on a restart and test program to demonstrate that the affected combustion unit has been returned to compliance and to settle all claims relating to this matter. That agreement became final as of July 20, 2011, and we expect to restart the unit as soon as practicable, consistent with the approved agreement.
 
Lower Passaic River Matter. In August 2004, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) notified Covanta Essex Company (“Essex”) that it was a potentially responsible party (“PRP”) for Superfund response actions in the Lower Passaic River Study Area, referred to as “LPRSA,” a 17 mile stretch of river in northern New Jersey. Essex is one of 71 PRPs named thus far that have joined the LPRSA PRP group, which is undertaking a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (“Study”) of the LPRSA under EPA oversight. Essex’s share of the Study costs to date are not material to its financial position and results of operations; however, the Study costs are exclusive of any LPRSA remedial costs or natural resource damages that may ultimately be assessed against PRPs. In February 2009, Essex and over 300 other PRPs were named as third-party defendants in a suit brought by the State of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (“NJDEP”) in New Jersey Superior Court of Essex County against Occidental Chemical Corporation and certain related entities (“Occidental”) with respect to alleged contamination of the LPRSA by Occidental. The Occidental third-party complaint seeks contribution with respect to any award to NJDEP of damages against Occidental in the matter. Considering the history of industrial and other discharges into the LPRSA from other sources, including named PRPs, Essex believes any releases to the LPRSA from its facility to be de minimis; however, it is not possible at this time to predict that outcome or to estimate Essex’s ultimate liability in the matter, including for LPRSA remedial costs and/or natural resource damages and/or contribution claims made by Occidental and/or other PRPs.
 
Other Matters
 
Other commitments as of June 30, 2011 were as follows (in thousands):
 
                         
    Commitments Expiring by Period  
          Less Than
    More Than
 
    Total     One Year     One Year  
 
Letters of credit
  $ 281,091     $ 3,208     $ 277,883  
Surety bonds
    85,876             85,876  
                         
Total other commitments — net
  $  366,967     $  3,208     $  363,759  
                         
 
The letters of credit were issued under various credit facilities (primarily the Funded L/C Facility) to secure our performance under various contractual undertakings related to our domestic and international projects or to secure obligations under our insurance program. Each letter of credit relating to a project is required to be maintained in effect for the period specified in related project contracts, and generally may be drawn if it is not renewed prior to expiration of that period.
 
We believe that we will be able to fully perform under our contracts to which these existing letters of credit relate, and that it is unlikely that letters of credit would be drawn because of a default of our performance obligations. If any of these letters of credit were to be drawn by the beneficiary, the amount drawn would be immediately repayable by us to the issuing bank. If we do not immediately repay such amounts drawn under these letters of credit, unreimbursed amounts would be treated under the Credit Facilities as additional term loans in the case of letters of credit issued under the Funded L/C Facility, or as revolving loans in the case of letters of credit issued under the Revolving Credit Facility.
 
The surety bonds listed on the table above relate primarily to performance obligations ($74.8 million) and support for closure obligations of various energy projects when such projects cease operating ($11.1 million). Were these bonds to be drawn upon, we would have a contractual obligation to indemnify the surety company.
 
We have certain contingent obligations related to the 7.25% Notes and the 3.25% Notes. These arise as follows:
 
  •  holders may require us to repurchase their 7.25% Notes and their 3.25% Notes if a fundamental change occurs; and
  •  holders may exercise their conversion rights upon the occurrence of certain events, which would require us to pay the conversion settlement amount in cash.


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COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED) – (Concluded)
 
 
We have certain contingent obligations related to the Debentures. These arise as follows:
  •  holders may require us to repurchase their Debentures on February 1, 2012, February 1, 2017 and February 1, 2022;
  •  holders may require us to repurchase their Debentures if a fundamental change occurs; and
  •  holders may exercise their conversion rights upon the occurrence of certain events, which would require us to pay the conversion settlement amount in cash and/or our common stock.
 
For specific criteria related to contingent interest, conversion or redemption features of the Debentures, the 7.25% Notes and the 3.25% Notes, refer to Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our Form 10-K.
 
We have issued or are party to guarantees and related contractual support obligations undertaken pursuant to agreements to construct and operate waste and energy facilities. For some projects, such performance guarantees include obligations to repay certain financial obligations if the project revenues are insufficient to do so, or to obtain or guarantee financing for a project. With respect to our businesses, we have issued guarantees to municipal clients and other parties that our subsidiaries will perform in accordance with contractual terms, including, where required, the payment of damages or other obligations. Additionally, damages payable under such guarantees for our energy-from-waste facilities could expose us to recourse liability on project debt. If we must perform under one or more of such guarantees, our liability for damages upon contract termination would be reduced by funds held in trust and proceeds from sales of the facilities securing the project debt and is presently not estimable. Depending upon the circumstances giving rise to such damages, the contractual terms of the applicable contracts, and the contract counterparty’s choice of remedy at the time a claim against a guarantee is made, the amounts owed pursuant to one or more of such guarantees could be greater than our then-available sources of funds. To date, we have not incurred material liabilities under such guarantees.


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Item 2.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
The terms “we,” “our,” “ours,” “us,” “Covanta” and “Company” refer to Covanta Holding Corporation and its subsidiaries; the term “Covanta Energy” refers to our subsidiary Covanta Energy Corporation and its subsidiaries. The following discussion addresses our financial condition as of June 30, 2011 and our results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2011, compared with the same periods last year. It should be read in conjunction with our Audited Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2010 and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2010 (“Form 10-K”), to which the reader is directed for additional information.
 
The preparation of interim financial statements necessarily relies heavily on estimates. Due to the use of estimates and certain other factors, such as the seasonal nature of our waste and energy services business, as well as competitive and other market conditions, we do not believe that interim results of operations are indicative of full year results of operations. The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts and classification of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
 
OVERVIEW
 
We are one of the world’s largest owners and operators of infrastructure for the conversion of waste to energy (known as “energy-from-waste” or “EfW”), as well as other waste disposal and renewable energy production businesses. Energy-from-waste serves two key markets as both a sustainable waste disposal solution that is environmentally superior to landfilling and as a source of clean energy that reduces overall greenhouse gas emissions and is considered renewable under the laws of many states and under federal law. Our facilities are critical infrastructure assets that allow our customers, which are principally municipal entities, to provide an essential public service.
 
We operate and/or have ownership positions in 44 energy-from-waste facilities, which are primarily located in North America, and 18 additional energy generation facilities, including other renewable energy production facilities in North America (wood biomass, landfill gas and hydroelectric) and independent power production (“IPP”) facilities in Asia. We also operate waste management infrastructure that is complementary to our core EfW business. We have one reportable segment which is Americas and we are organized as a holding company and conduct all of our operations through subsidiaries which are engaged predominantly in the businesses of waste and energy services.
 
We also hold equity interests in energy-from-waste facilities in China and Italy. We are pursuing additional growth opportunities in parts of Europe, where the market demand, regulatory environment or other factors encourage technologies such as energy-from-waste to reduce dependence on landfilling for waste disposal and fossil fuels for energy production in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We are focusing primarily on the United Kingdom where we continue to pursue several billion dollars worth of energy-from-waste development opportunities.
 
In 2010, we adopted a plan to sell our interests in our fossil fuel independent power production facilities in the Philippines, India, and Bangladesh. During the first quarter of 2011, we completed the sale of our interests in a 510 megawatt (“MW”) (gross) coal-fired electric power generation facility in the Philippines (“Quezon”) and we completed the sale of our majority equity interests in a 106 MW (gross) heavy fuel-oil fired electric power generation facilities in Tamil Nadu, India (“Samalpatti”). In April 2011, we signed an agreement to sell our majority equity interests in our 106 MW (gross) heavy fuel-oil fired electric power generation facility also in Tamil Nadu, India (“Madurai”). The remaining asset held for sale is our equity interest in a barge-mounted 126 MW (gross) diesel/natural gas-fired electric power generation facility located near Haripur, Bangladesh. For additional information, see Assets Held for Sale below.
 
We plan to allocate capital to maximize shareholder value by investing in: our existing businesses to maintain and enhance assets, high value core business development projects and strategic acquisitions when available, and by returning surplus capital to shareholders. During first and second quarters of 2011, the Board of Directors approved a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.075 per share which was paid on April 12, 2011 and July 6, 2011, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2011, the Board of Directors approved an additional $150 million share repurchase authorization, bringing the total authorized amount since the second quarter of 2010 to $300 million. During the six months ended June 30, 2011, we repurchased 7.4 million shares


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of our common stock at a weighted average cost of $16.69 per share for an aggregate amount of approximately $124.4 million. For additional information, see Liquidity and Capital Resources below.
 
Strategy
 
Our mission is to be the leading energy-from-waste company in the world, which we intend to pursue through the following key strategies:
 
  •     Maximize the value of our existing portfolio. We intend to maximize the long-term value of our existing portfolio by continuously improving safety, health and environmental performance, working in partnership with our client communities, continuing to operate at our historic production levels, maintaining our facilities in optimal condition, managing our expenses, adding or extending waste and service contracts, seeking incremental revenue opportunities with our existing assets, relationships or technologies and expanding facility capacity where appropriate.
 
  •     Grow in selected attractive markets. We seek to grow our portfolio primarily through the development of new facilities and acquisitions where we believe that market and regulatory conditions will enable us to invest our capital at attractive risk-adjusted rates of return. We are currently focusing on development opportunities in the U.S., Canada and Europe, which we consider to be our core markets. We believe that there are numerous attractive opportunities in the United Kingdom in particular, where national policies, such as a substantial tax on landfill use, are intended to achieve compliance with the EU Landfill Directive.
 
        We believe that our approach to development opportunities is highly-disciplined, both with regard to our required rates of return and the manner in which potential new projects will be structured and financed. In general, prior to the commencement of construction of a new facility, we intend to enter into long-term contracts with municipal and/or commercial customers for a substantial portion of the disposal capacity and obtain non-recourse project financing for a majority of the capital investment. We intend to finance new projects in a prudent manner, minimizing the impact on our balance sheet and credit profile at the parent company level where possible.
 
  •     Develop and commercialize new technology. We believe that our efforts to protect and expand our business will be enhanced by the development of additional technologies in such fields as emission controls, residue disposal, alternative waste treatment processes, and combustion controls. We have advanced our research and development efforts in these areas, and have developed and have patents pending for major advances in controlling nitrogen oxide (“NOx”) emissions and have a patent for a proprietary process to improve the handling of the residue from our energy-from-waste facilities. We have also entered into various agreements with multiple partners to invest in the development, testing or licensing of new technologies related to the transformation of waste materials into renewable fuels or the generation of energy, as well as improved environmental performance.
 
  •     Advocate for public policy favorable to energy-from-waste. We seek to educate policymakers about the environmental and economic benefits of energy-from-waste and advocate for policies that appropriately reflect these benefits. Energy-from-waste is a highly regulated business, and as such we believe that it is critically important for us, as an industry leader, to play an active role in the debates surrounding potential policy developments that could impact our business.
 
        We are actively engaged in the current discussion among policy makers in the United States regarding the benefits of energy-from-waste and the reduction of our dependence on landfilling for waste disposal and fossil fuels for energy.
 
  •     Allocate capital efficiently. We plan to allocate capital to maximize shareholder value by investing in: our existing businesses to maintain and enhance assets, high value core business development projects and strategic acquisitions when available, and by returning surplus capital to shareholders.
 
Factors Affecting Business Conditions and Financial Results
 
Economic - During 2008 and 2009, the economic slowdown reduced demand for goods and services generally, which reduced overall volumes of waste requiring disposal and the pricing at which we can attract waste to fill available capacity. We receive the majority of our revenue under short- and long-term contracts, with little or no exposure to price volatility, but with adjustments intended to reflect changes in our costs. Where our revenue is received under other arrangements and depending upon the revenue source, we have varying amounts of exposure to price volatility.


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The largest component of our revenue is waste revenue, which has generally been subject to less price volatility than our revenue derived from the sale of energy and metals. However, the downturn in economic activity has reduced waste generation rates in the northeast U.S. which subsequently caused market waste disposal prices to decline modestly. Furthermore, global demand and pricing of certain commodities, such as the scrap metals we recycle from our energy-from-waste facilities has been materially affected by economic activity. Pricing for recycled metals reached historically high levels during 2008, declined materially during 2009 and has rebounded substantially during 2010 and 2011.
 
At the same time, the declines in U.S. natural gas prices have pushed electricity and steam pricing generally lower, which causes lower revenue for the portion of the energy we sell which is not under fixed-price contracts. During 2008, pricing for energy reached historically high levels and has subsequently declined materially during both 2009 and 2010. During 2011, pricing for energy has increased modestly.
 
The downturn in economic activity has also affected many municipalities and public authorities, some of which are our customers. Many local and central governments are seeking to reduce expenses in order to address declining tax revenues. We work closely with these municipal customers, with many of whom we have shared a long-term relationship, to effectively counter some of these economic challenges.
 
Market Pricing for Waste, Energy and Metal - Global and regional economy activity, as well as technological advances, regulations and a variety of other factors, will affect market supply and demand and therefore prices for waste disposal services, energy (including electricity and steam) and other commodities such as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. As market prices for waste disposal, electricity, steam and recycled metal rise it benefits our existing business as well as our prospects for growth through expansions or new development. Conversely, market price declines for these services and commodities will adversely affect both our existing business and growth prospects.
 
Seasonal - Our quarterly operating income within the same fiscal year typically differs substantially due to seasonal factors, primarily as a result of the timing of scheduled plant maintenance. We typically conduct scheduled maintenance periodically each year, which requires that individual boiler and/or turbine units temporarily cease operations. During these scheduled maintenance periods, we incur material repair and maintenance expenses and receive less revenue until the boiler and/or turbine units resume operations. This scheduled maintenance typically occurs during periods of off-peak electric demand and/or lower waste volumes, which are our first, second and fourth fiscal quarters. The first half of the year scheduled maintenance period is typically the most extensive. The third quarter scheduled maintenance period is typically the least extensive. Given these factors, we typically experience our lowest operating income from our projects during our first half of each year.
 
In addition, at certain of our project subsidiaries, distributions of excess earnings (above and beyond monthly operation and maintenance service payments) are subject to periodic tests of project debt service coverage or requirements to maintain minimum working capital balances. While these distributions occur throughout the year based upon the specific terms of the relevant project debt arrangements, they are typically highest in the fourth quarter. Our net cash provided by operating activities exhibits seasonal fluctuations as a result of the timing of these distributions, including a benefit in the fourth quarter compared to the first nine months of the year.
 
Other Factors Affecting Performance — We historically have performed our operating obligations without experiencing material unexpected service interruptions or incurring material increases in costs. In addition, with respect to many of our contracts, we generally have limited our exposure for risks not within our control. For additional information about such risks and damages that we may owe for unexcused operating performance failures, see Item 1A. Risk Factors in our Form 10-K. In monitoring and assessing the ongoing operating and financial performance of our businesses, we focus on certain key factors: tons of waste processed, electricity and steam sold, and boiler availability.
 
Business Segment
 
We have one reportable segment which is Americas and is comprised of waste and energy services operations primarily in the United States and Canada.
 
The Americas segment is comprised primarily of energy-from-waste projects. For all of these projects, we earn revenue from two primary sources: fees charged for operating projects or processing waste received and payments for electricity and steam sales. We also operate, and in some cases have ownership interests in, transfer stations and landfills which generate revenue from waste and ash disposal fees or operating fees. In addition, we own, and in some cases operate, other renewable energy projects


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primarily in the United States which generate electricity from wood waste (biomass), landfill gas and hydroelectric resources. The electricity from these other renewable energy projects is sold to utilities. We may receive additional revenue from construction activity during periods when we are constructing new facilities or expanding existing facilities.
 
Contract Structures
 
We currently operate energy-from-waste projects in 16 states and Canada. Most of our energy-from-waste projects were developed and structured contractually as part of competitive procurement processes conducted by municipal entities. As a result, many of these projects have common features. However, each service agreement is different reflecting the specific needs and concerns of a client community, applicable regulatory requirements and other factors. The following describes features generally common to these agreements, as well as important distinctions among them:
 
  •     We design the facility, help to arrange for financing and then we either construct and equip the facility on a fixed price and schedule basis, or we undertake an alternative role, such as construction management, if that better meets the goals of our municipal client.
 
  •     For the energy-from-waste projects we own, financing is generally accomplished through tax-exempt and taxable revenue bonds issued by or on behalf of the client community. For these facilities, the bond proceeds are loaned to us to pay for facility construction and to fund a debt service reserve for the project, which is generally sufficient to pay principal and interest for one year. Project-related debt is included as “project debt” and the debt service reserves are included as “restricted funds held in trust” in our condensed consolidated financial statements. Generally, project debt is secured by the project’s revenue, contracts and other assets of our project subsidiary.
 
  •     Following construction and during operations, we receive revenue from two primary sources: fees we receive for operating projects or for processing waste received, and payments we receive for electricity and/or steam we sell.
 
  •     We agree to operate the facility and meet minimum waste processing capacity and efficiency standards, energy production levels and environmental standards. Failure to meet these requirements or satisfy the other material terms of our agreement (unless the failure is caused by our client community or by events beyond our control), may result in damages charged to us or, if the breach is substantial, continuing and unremedied, termination of the applicable agreement. These damages could include amounts sufficient to repay project debt (as reduced by amounts held in trust and/or proceeds from sales of facilities securing project debt) and as such, these contingent obligations cannot readily be quantified. We have issued performance guarantees to our client communities and, in some cases other parties, which guarantee that our project subsidiaries will perform in accordance with contractual terms including, where required, the payment of such damages. If one or more contracts were terminated for our default, these contractual damages may be material to our cash flow and financial condition. To date, we have not incurred material liabilities under such performance guarantees.
 
  •     The client community generally must deliver minimum quantities of municipal solid waste to the facility on a put-or-pay basis and is obligated to pay a fee for its disposal. A put-or-pay commitment means that the client community promises to deliver a stated quantity of waste and pay an agreed amount for its disposal, regardless of whether the full amount of waste is actually delivered. Client communities have consistently met their commitment to deliver the stated quantity of waste. Where a Service Fee structure exists, portions of the service fee escalate to reflect indices for inflation, and in many cases, the client community must also pay for other costs, such as insurance, taxes, and transportation and disposal of the ash residue to the disposal site. Generally, expenses resulting from the delivery of unacceptable and hazardous waste on the site are also borne by the client community. In addition, the contracts generally require the client community to pay increased expenses and capital costs resulting from unforeseen circumstances, subject to specified limits. At three publicly-owned facilities we operate, our client community may terminate the operating contract under limited circumstances without cause.
 
  •     Our returns are expected to be stable if we do not incur material unexpected operation and maintenance costs or other expenses. In addition, most of our energy-from-waste project contracts are structured so that contract counterparties generally bear, or share in, the costs associated with events or circumstances not within our control, such as uninsured force majeure events and changes in legal requirements. The stability of our revenues and returns could be affected by our ability to continue to enforce these obligations. Also, at some of our energy-from-waste facilities, commodity price risk is mitigated by passing through commodity costs to contract counterparties. With respect to our other renewable


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  energy projects, such structural features generally do not exist because either we operate and maintain such facilities for our own account or we do so on a cost-plus basis rather than a fixed-fee basis.
 
  •     We receive the majority of our revenue under short- and long-term contracts, with little or no exposure to price volatility, but with adjustments intended to reflect changes in our costs. Where our revenue is received under other arrangements and depending upon the revenue source, we have varying amounts of exposure to price volatility. The largest component of our revenue is waste revenue, which has generally been subject to less price volatility than our revenue derived from the sale of energy and metals. During 2008, pricing for energy reached historically high levels and has subsequently declined materially during both 2009 and 2010. During 2011, pricing for energy has increased modestly. Similarly, pricing for recycled metals reached historically high levels during 2008, declined materially during 2009 and has rebounded substantially during 2010 and 2011. At some of our renewable energy projects, our operating subsidiaries purchase fuel in the open markets which exposes us to fuel price risk.
 
  •     We generally sell the energy output from our projects to local utilities pursuant to long-term contracts. At several of our energy-from-waste projects, we sell energy output under short-term contracts or on a spot-basis to our customers.
 
Contracted and Merchant Capacity
 
Our service and waste disposal agreements, as well as our energy contracts, expire at various times. The extent to which any such expiration will affect us will depend upon a variety of factors, including whether we own the project, market conditions then prevailing, and whether the municipal client exercises options it may have to extend the contract term. As our contracts expire, we will become subject to greater market risk in maintaining and enhancing our revenues. As service agreements at municipally-owned facilities expire, we intend to seek to enter into renewal or replacement contracts to operate such facilities. We will also seek to bid competitively in the market for additional contracts to operate other facilities as similar contracts of other vendors expire. As our service and waste disposal agreements at facilities we own or lease expire, we intend to seek replacement or additional contracts, and because project debt on these facilities will be paid off at such time, we expect to be able to offer rates that will attract sufficient quantities of waste while providing acceptable revenues to us. At facilities we own, the expiration of existing energy contracts will require us to sell our output either into the local electricity grid at prevailing rates or pursuant to new contracts. We may enter into contractual arrangements that will mitigate our exposure to revenue fluctuations in energy markets through a variety of hedging techniques.
 
To date, we have been successful in extending a majority of our existing contracts to operate energy-from-waste facilities owned by municipal clients where market conditions and other factors make it attractive for both us and our municipal clients to do so. See Growth and Development discussion below for additional information. The extent to which additional extensions will be attractive to us and to our municipal clients who own their projects will depend upon the market and other factors noted above. However, we do not believe that either our success or lack of success in entering into additional negotiated extensions to operate such facilities will have a material impact on our overall cash flow and profitability for the next several years.
 
As we seek to enter into extended or new contracts, we expect that medium- and long-term contracts for waste supply, at least for a substantial portion of facility capacity, will be available on acceptable terms in the marketplace. We also expect that medium- and long-term contracts for sales of energy will be less available than in the past. As a result, following the expiration of these long-term contracts, we expect to have on a relative basis more exposure to market risk, and therefore revenue fluctuations, in energy markets than in waste markets.
 
In conjunction with our U.S. energy-from-waste business, we also own and/or operate 13 transfer stations, two ashfills and two landfills in the northeast United States, which we utilize to supplement and manage more efficiently the fuel and ash disposal requirements at our energy-from-waste operations. We provide waste procurement services to our waste disposal and transfer station facilities which have available capacity to receive waste. With these services, we seek to maximize our revenue and ensure that our energy-from-waste facilities are being utilized most efficiently, taking into account maintenance schedules and operating restrictions that may exist from time to time at each facility. We also provide management and marketing of ferrous and non-ferrous metals recovered from energy-from-waste operations, as well as services related to non-hazardous special waste destruction and ash residue management for our energy-from-waste projects.
 
Growth and Development
 
We are focusing our efforts on operating and enhancing our existing business and pursuing strategic growth opportunities through development and acquisitions with the goal of maximizing long-term stockholder return. We anticipate that a part of our


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future growth will come from investing in or acquiring additional energy-from-waste, waste disposal and renewable energy production businesses. We are pursuing additional growth opportunities particularly in locations where the market demand, regulatory environment or other factors encourage technologies such as energy-from-waste to reduce dependence on landfilling for waste disposal and fossil fuels for energy production in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We are focusing on the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada and the United States. Our growth opportunities include: new energy-from-waste and other renewable energy projects, existing project expansions, contract extensions, acquisitions, and businesses ancillary to our existing business, such as additional waste transfer, transportation, processing and disposal businesses. We also intend to maintain a focus on research and development of technologies that we believe will enhance our competitive position, and offer new technical solutions to waste and energy problems that augment and complement our business.
 
We have a growth pipeline and continue to pursue several billion dollars worth of energy-from-waste development opportunities. However, much remains to be done and there is substantial uncertainty relating to the bidding and permitting process for each project opportunity. If, and when, these development efforts are successful, we plan to invest in these projects to achieve an attractive return on capital particularly when leveraged with project debt which we intend to utilize for our development projects.
 
CONTRACT EXTENSIONS
 
Fairfax County Energy-from-Waste Facility
 
In August 2010, the service fee contract with Fairfax County was extended from 2011 to 2016 pursuant to a unilateral option held by the County. The terms of the contract remain unchanged under the extension; however, the project debt on the facility was repaid in February 2011, and since Fairfax County had previously paid debt service as a component of the service fee during the term of the original contract, the County will effectively retain the benefit of the debt repayment during the 5 year extension period. In March 2011, the county announced its desire to proceed to negotiate a long-term extension to the contract rather than exercise a fair market value purchase option it holds under the existing agreement. However, the parties were not able to agree on a long-term extension and negotiations have ceased. Therefore, the parties will continue to operate under the terms of the existing service fee contract which ends in 2016.
 
ACQUISITION
 
Covanta Dade Metals Recycling Facility
 
In May 2011, we acquired a metals processing facility located on our Dade Florida energy-from-waste facility site. This facility shreds and processes recovered ferrous scrap metal to enhance marketability and price.
 
PROJECTS UNDER ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT OR CONSTRUCTION
 
Americas
 
Durham-York Energy-from-Waste Facility
 
In 2009, we were selected as the preferred vendor for the design, construction and operation of a municipally-owned 140,000 tonne-per-year greenfield energy-from-waste facility to be built in Clarington, Ontario, located in Durham Region, Canada. In late 2010, after receiving the Environmental Assessment from the Provincial Ministry of the Environment, we executed a project agreement with the Regions of Durham and York to design, build and operate the facility which will process waste from these Regions. The fixed construction contract price for the project is approximately C$250 million. The project will be funded and owned by the Durham and York Regions. The final environmental permit has been received and we expect to receive a notice to proceed with construction sometime during the third quarter. After construction, we will operate the facility under a 20 year contract.
 
Honolulu Energy-from-Waste Facility
 
We operate and maintain the energy-from-waste facility located in and owned by the City and County of Honolulu, Hawaii. In December 2009, we entered into agreements with the City and County of Honolulu to expand the facility’s waste processing capacity from 2,160 tons per day (“tpd”) to 3,060 tpd and to increase gross electricity capacity from 57 MW to 90 MW. The


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agreements also extend the contract term by 20 years. The $302 million expansion project is a fixed-price construction contract which is funded and owned by the City and County of Honolulu. Construction commenced at the end of 2009.
 
Other
 
China Joint Ventures and Energy-from-Waste Facilities
 
We currently own 85% of the Taixing Covanta Yanjiang Cogeneration Co., Ltd. which, in 2009, entered into a 25 year concession agreement and waste supply agreements to build, own and operate a 350 metric tpd energy-from-waste facility for Taixing Municipality, in Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China. The project, which will be built on the site of our existing coal-fired facility in Taixing, will supply steam to an adjacent industrial park under short-term arrangements. We will continue to operate our existing coal-fired facility. The project company has obtained Rmb 165 million in project financing which, together with available cash from existing operations will fund construction costs. Construction commenced in late 2009 and the facility began processing waste during the second quarter of 2011.
 
In 2008, we and Chongqing Iron & Steel Company (Group) Ltd. entered into an agreement to build, own, and operate an 1,800 metric tpd energy-from-waste facility for Chengdu Municipality in Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China. We also executed a 25 year waste concession agreement for this project. In connection with this project, we acquired a 49% equity interest in the project company. Construction of the facility has commenced and the project company has obtained Rmb 480 million in project financing, of which 49% is guaranteed by us and 51% is guaranteed by Chongqing Iron & Steel Company (Group) Ltd. until the project has been constructed and for one year after operations commence.
 
ASSETS HELD FOR SALE AND DISPOSITIONS
 
In 2010, we adopted a plan to sell our interests in our fossil fuel independent power production facilities in the Philippines, India, and Bangladesh.
 
During the first quarter of 2011, we completed the sale of our majority equity interests in a 106 MW (gross) heavy fuel-oil fired electric power generation facilities in Tamil Nadu, India (“Samalpatti”) and we completed the sale of our interests in a 510 MW (gross) coal-fired electric power generation facility in the Philippines (“Quezon”). The Quezon assets sold consisted of our entire interest in Covanta Philippines Operating, Inc., which provided operation and maintenance services to the facility, as well as our 26% ownership interest in the project company, Quezon Power, Inc. We received a combined total of cash proceeds of approximately $225 million, net of transaction costs.
 
During the second quarter of 2011, we signed an agreement with Samayanallur Power Investments Private Limited (“SPI”) to sell our interests in a 106 MW (gross) heavy fuel-oil fired electric power generation facility in Tamil Nadu, India (“Madurai”). The Madurai assets being sold include our entire interest in Covanta Madurai Operating Private Limited, which provides operation and maintenance services to the facility, as well as our approximately 77% ownership interest in the project company, Madurai Power Corporation Private Ltd. The project sells electrical output to the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (“TNEB”) pursuant to long-term agreements and TNEB’s obligations are guaranteed by the government of the state of Tamil Nadu. This transaction is expected to close during 2011, and is subject to customary approvals and closing conditions and to SPI’s obtaining financing.
 
The remaining asset held for sale is our equity interest in a barge-mounted 126 MW (gross) diesel/natural gas-fired electric power generation facility located near Haripur, Bangladesh.
 
The assets and liabilities associated with these businesses are presented in our condensed consolidated balance sheets as “Current Assets Held for Sale” and “Current Liabilities Held for Sale.” The results of operations of these businesses are included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations as “Income (loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax.” The cash flows of these businesses are also presented separately in our condensed consolidated statements of cash flows. All corresponding prior year periods presented in our condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been reclassified to reflect the discontinued operations presentation. See Item 8. Financial Statements And Supplementary Data — Note 3. Assets Held for Sale and Dispositions for additional information.


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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
The comparability of the information provided below with respect to our revenues, expenses and certain other items for the periods presented was affected by several factors. As outlined above under Overview — Growth and Development, our acquisition and business development initiatives resulted in various additional projects which increased comparative revenues and expenses. These factors must be taken into account in developing meaningful comparisons between the periods compared below.
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS — Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2011 vs. Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2010
 
                                                 
    For the
    For the
    Variance
 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
    Increase/(Decrease)  
    June 30,     June 30,     Three
    Six
 
    2011     2010     2011     2010     Month     Month  
    (Unaudited, in thousands)  
 
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS:
                                               
Total operating revenues
  $   411,535     $   393,377     $   788,305     $   761,070     $   18,158     $   27,235  
Total operating expenses
    359,174       343,081       737,586       715,155       16,093       22,431  
                                                 
Operating income
    52,361       50,296       50,719       45,915       2,065       4,804  
                                                 
Other income (expense):
                                               
Investment income
    118       173       379       396       (55 )     (17 )
Interest expense
    (16,811 )     (10,693 )     (33,572 )     (21,279 )     6,118       12,293  
Non-cash convertible debt related expense
    (6,425 )     (11,734 )     (11,585 )     (19,981 )     (5,309 )     (8,396 )
Other expenses, net
    (2,778 )           (3,134 )           2,778       3,134  
                                                 
Total other expenses
    (25,896 )     (22,254 )     (47,912 )     (40,864 )     3,642       7,048  
                                                 
Income from continuing operations before income tax expense and equity in net income (loss) from unconsolidated investments
    26,465       28,042       2,807       5,051       (1,577 )     (2,244 )
Income tax expense
    (10,564 )     (12,889 )     (578 )     (3,007 )     (2,325 )     (2,429 )
Equity in net income (loss) from unconsolidated investments
    1,850       1,099       1,973       (243 )     751       2,216  
                                                 
Income from continuing operations
    17,751       16,252       4,202       1,801       1,499       2,401  
Income from discontinued operations, net of income tax expense of $913, $1,919, $3,106 and $3,926, respectively
    1,924       11,022       150,866       20,740       (9,098 )     130,126  
                                                 
NET INCOME
    19,675       27,274       155,068       22,541       (7,599 )     132,527  
                                                 
Less: Net income from continuing operations attributable to noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
    (809 )     (773 )     (901 )     (2,335 )     36       (1,434 )
Less: Net income from discontinued operations attributable to noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
    (726 )     (712 )     (2,534 )     (1,650 )     14       884  
                                                 
Total Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
    (1,535 )     (1,485 )     (3,435 )     (3,985 )     50       (550 )
                                                 
NET INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO COVANTA HOLDING CORPORATION
  $ 18,140     $ 25,789     $ 151,633     $ 18,556       (7,649 )     133,077  
                                                 
Amounts Attributable to Covanta Holding Corporation stockholders:
                                               
Continuing operations
  $ 16,942     $ 15,479     $ 3,301     $ (534 )     1,463       3,835  
Discontinued operations, net of tax expense
    1,198       10,310       148,332       19,090       (9,112 )     129,242  
                                                 
Covanta Holding Corporation
  $ 18,140     $ 25,789     $ 151,633     $ 18,556       (7,649 )     133,077  
                                                 
 


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    For the
    For the
    Variance
 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
    Increase/(Decrease)  
    June 30,     June 30,     Three
    Six
 
    2011     2010     2011     2010     Month     Month  
    (Unaudited, in thousands)  
 
Earnings Per Share Attributable to Covanta Holding Corporation stockholders:
                                               
Basic:
                                               
Continuing operations   $ 0.12     $ 0.10     $ 0.02     $ 0.00       0.02       0.02  
Discontinued operations, net of tax expense     0.01       0.07       1.02       0.12       (0.06 )     0.90  
                                                 
Covanta Holding Corporation   $ 0.13     $ 0.17     $ 1.04     $ 0.12       (0.04 )     0.92  
                                                 
Weighted Average Shares
    143,970       154,377       145,415       154,139       (10,407 )     (8,724 )
                                                 
Diluted:
                                               
Continuing operations   $ 0.12     $ 0.10     $ 0.02     $ 0.00       0.02       0.02  
Discontinued operations, net of tax expense     0.01       0.07       1.02       0.12       (0.06 )     0.90  
                                                 
Covanta Holding Corporation   $ 0.13     $ 0.17     $ 1.04     $ 0.12       (0.04 )     0.92  
                                                 
Weighted Average Shares
    144,938       155,026       146,323       154,139       (10,088 )     (7,816 )
                                                 
Cash Dividend Declared Per Share:
  $ 0.075     $ 1.50     $ 0.15     $ 1.50       (1.425 )     (1.35 )
                                                 
Adjusted Earnings Per Share — Non-GAAP: (A)
  $ 0.14     $ 0.11     $ 0.03     $ 0.00       0.03       0.03  
                                                 
 
 
(A) See Supplementary Financial Information — Adjusted Earnings Per Share (Non-GAAP Discussion)
 
The following general discussions should be read in conjunction with the above table, the condensed consolidated financial statements, the notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements and other financial information appearing and referred to elsewhere in this report. Additional detail relating to changes in operating revenues and operating expenses, and the quantification of specific factors affecting or causing such changes, is provided in the segment discussion below.
 
Consolidated Results of Operations — Comparison of Results for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2011 vs. Results for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2010
 
Operating revenues increased by $18.2 million and $27.2 million for the three and six month comparative periods, respectively, primarily due to improved recycled metal revenues due to higher market prices; increased revenues from service fee contract escalations; and increased construction revenue due to the Honolulu expansion project. Operating revenues for the six month comparative period also increased due to a full six months of operating the Dade facility. These increases were offset by the impact of lower electricity and steam sales due to lower production related to certain biomass facilities being economically dispatched off-line.
 
Operating expenses increased by $16.1 million and $22.4 million for the three and six month comparative periods, respectively, primarily due to timing and increased scope of scheduled maintenance activities; normal cost escalations; higher fuel related costs and increased construction expense related to the Honolulu expansion project. Operating expenses for the six month comparative period also increased due to a full six months of operating the Dade facility. These increases were partially offset by lower costs related to certain biomass facilities being economically dispatched off-line and higher alternative fuel tax credits.
 
Operating income increased by $2.1 million and $4.8 million for the three and six month comparative periods, respectively, primarily due to higher recycled metal revenues and various operational improvements, partially offset by timing on scheduled maintenance activities and lower debt service pass through revenue related to contract transitions.
 
Interest expense increased by $6.1 million and $12.3 million for the three and six month comparative periods, respectively, primarily due to the issuance of the 7.25% Senior Notes which were issued in December 2010, offset by lower interest expense for the Debentures, the majority of which were tendered during the fourth quarter of 2010. Non-cash convertible debt related expense decreased by $5.3 million and $8.4 million for the three and six month comparative periods, respectively, primarily due to lower amortization of the debt discount for the Debentures and the net changes to the valuation of the derivatives associated

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with the 3.25% Cash Convertible Senior Notes. Other expenses increased by $2.8 million and $3.1 million for the three and six month comparative periods, respectively, primarily due to the net effect of foreign exchange losses on indebtedness.
 
The income tax expense decreased for the comparative period which is reflective of the decrease in the overall effective tax rate from continuing operations. We currently estimate our annual effective tax rate for the year ending December 31, 2011 to be approximately 39.6%. We review the annual effective tax rate on a quarterly basis as projections are revised and laws are enacted. The effective income tax rate was 20.6% and 59.5% for the six months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The decrease in the effective tax rate is primarily due to the impact of state tax law changes enacted in the current year quarter on deferred state taxes and to the impact of certain foreign activities in the comparative prior year quarter.
 
During first and second quarters of 2011, the Board of Directors approved a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.075 per share, which was paid on April 12, 2011 and July 6, 2011, respectively. During the second quarter of 2010, the Board of Directors declared a special cash dividend of $1.50 per share which was paid on July 20, 2010.
 
Dividends declared to stockholders are as follows (in millions, except per share amounts):
 
                                 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Per Share
  $ 0.075     $ 1.50     $ 0.15     $ 1.50  
Regular cash dividend declared to
stockholders
  $ 10.9     $     $ 21.8     $  
Special cash dividend declared to
stockholders
  $     $ 232.7     $     $ 232.7  
 
For the six months ended June 30, 2011, the Board of Directors approved an additional $150 million share repurchase authorization, bringing the total authorized amount since the second quarter of 2010 to $300 million. Under the program, common stock repurchases may be made in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions from time to time, or by other available methods, at management’s discretion in accordance with applicable federal securities laws. The timing and amounts of any repurchases will depend on many factors, including our capital structure, the market price of our common stock and overall market conditions. As of June 30, 2011, the amount remaining under our currently authorized share repurchase program was $81 million.
 
Common stock repurchased is as follows (in millions, except per share amounts):
 
                         
                Weighted
 
          Shares
    Average Cost
 
Common Stock Repurchased   Amount     Repurchased     Per Share  
 
Three months ended March 31, 2011
  $ 54.4       3.2     $ 16.84  
Three months ended June 30, 2011 (1)
  $ 70.0       4.2     $ 16.58  
                         
Six months ended June 30, 2011
  $  124.4       7.4     $  16.69  
                         
 
 
(1) Approximately $1.3 million of common stock repurchased during the three months ended June 30,
2011 was paid in July 2011.


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Americas Segment Results of Operations — Comparison of Results for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2011 vs. Results for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2010
 
                                                 
    For the
    For the
             
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
    Variance
 
    June 30,     June 30,     Increase/(Decrease)  
    2011     2010     2011     2010     Three Month     Six Month  
    (Unaudited, in thousands)  
 
Waste and service revenues
  $ 276,056     $ 267,522     $ 526,973     $ 508,585     $ 8,534     $ 18,388  
Electricity and steam sales
    91,639       94,004       180,070       189,413       (2,365 )     (9,343 )
Other operating revenues
    32,990       21,111       60,203       41,926       11,879       18,277  
                                                 
Total operating revenues
    400,685       382,637       767,246       739,924       18,048       27,322  
                                                 
Plant operating expenses
    240,795       226,118       504,504       483,300       14,677       21,204  
Other operating expense
    28,813       20,878       52,238       41,492       7,935       10,746  
General and administrative expenses
    19,291       20,446       37,316       39,907       (1,155 )     (2,591 )
Depreciation and amortization expense
    46,825       45,979       93,732       94,000       846       (268 )
Net interest expense on project debt
    7,862       9,812       15,825       20,094       (1,950 )     (4,269 )
                                                 
Total operating expenses
    343,586       323,233       703,615       678,793       20,353       24,822  
                                                 
Operating income
  $ 57,099     $ 59,404     $ 63,631     $ 61,131       (2,305 )     2,500  
                                                 
 
Operating Revenues
 
Operating revenues for the Americas segment increased by $18.0 million and $27.3 million for the three and six month comparative periods, respectively.
 
  •  Waste and service revenues, excluding recycled metals revenues, increased by $4.8 million for the three month comparative period primarily due to increases in service fee contract escalations and higher tip fee pricing, offset by lower revenues earned explicitly to service project debt. Waste and service revenues, excluding recycled metals revenues, increased by $10.7 million for the six month comparative period primarily due to increases in service fee contract escalations, a full first quarter of operating the Dade facility, and increases in tip fee pricing and tip fee special waste prices, offset by lower revenues earned explicitly to service project debt.
 
  •  Recycled metal revenues increased by $3.7 million and $7.7 million for the three and six month comparative periods, respectively, primarily due to higher pricing. Historically, we have experienced volatile prices for recycled metal which has affected our recycled metal revenue as reflected in the table below (in millions):
 
                         
    For the
 
    Quarters Ended  
Total Recycled Metal Revenues   2011     2010     2009  
 
March 31,
  $ 16.6     $ 12.6     $ 5.2  
June 30,
    18.5       14.8       5.8  
September 30,
          13.3       9.1  
December 31,
          13.9       9.1  
                         
Total for the Year Ended December 31,
  $ N/A     $ 54.6     $ 29.2  
                         
 
  •  Electricity and steam sales decreased by $2.4 million for the three month comparative period due to lower production and lower energy revenue related to economically dispatching some of our biomass facilities. Electricity and steam sales decreased by $9.3 million for the six month comparative period due to lower production, lower energy revenue related to economically dispatching some of our biomass facilities, and lower pricing.
 
  •  Other operating revenues increased primarily due to increased construction revenue related to the Honolulu expansion project.


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Operating Expenses
 
Plant operating expenses increased by $14.7 million for the three month comparative period primarily due to timing and scope of scheduled maintenance activities, normal cost escalations and higher fuel related costs, partially offset by lower costs related to certain biomass facilities being economically dispatched off-line and higher alternative fuel tax credits. Plant operating expenses increased by $21.2 million for six month comparative period primarily due to timing and increased scope of scheduled maintenance activities, normal cost escalations, a full first quarter of operating the Dade facility, higher fuel related costs and lower Renewable Energy Credits, partially offset by lower costs related to some biomass facilities being economically dispatched off-line and higher alternative fuel tax credits.
 
Other operating expenses increased primarily due to increased construction expense related to the Honolulu expansion project.
 
General and administrative expenses decreased primarily due to lower growth spending.
 
Net interest expense on project debt decreased due to lower project debt balances.
 
Operating Income
 
Operating income decreased by $2.3 million for the three month comparative period primarily due to timing of scheduled maintenance activities and lower debt service pass through revenue largely offset by higher recycled metal revenues and various operational improvements. Operating income increased by $2.5 million for the six month comparative period primarily due to higher recycled metal and various operational improvements largely offset by timing of scheduled maintenance activities and lower debt service pass through revenue.
 
Supplementary Financial Information — Adjusted Earnings Per Share (“Adjusted EPS”) (Non-GAAP Discussion)
 
We use a number of different financial measures, both United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and non-GAAP, in assessing the overall performance of our business. To supplement our results prepared in accordance with GAAP, we use the measure of Adjusted EPS, which is a non-GAAP measure as defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The non-GAAP financial measure of Adjusted EPS is not intended as a substitute or as an alternative to diluted earnings (loss) per share as an indicator of our performance or any other measure of performance derived in accordance with GAAP. In addition, our non-GAAP financial measures may be different from non-GAAP measures used by other companies, limiting their usefulness for comparison purposes.
 
Adjusted EPS excludes certain income and expense items that are not representative of our ongoing business and operations, which are included in the calculation of diluted earnings (loss) per share in accordance with GAAP. The following items are not all-inclusive, but are examples of reconciling items in prior comparative and future periods. They would include write-down of assets, the effect of derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments, significant gains or losses from the disposition of businesses, gains and losses on assets held for sale, transaction-related costs, income and loss on the extinguishment of debt and other significant items that would not be representative of our ongoing business.
 
We use the non-GAAP measure of Adjusted EPS to enhance the usefulness of our financial information by providing a measure which management internally uses to assess and evaluate the overall performance and highlight trends in the ongoing business.
 
In order to provide a meaningful basis for comparison, we are providing information with respect to our Adjusted EPS for the three and six months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, reconciled for each such period to diluted earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations, which is believed to be the most directly comparable measure under GAAP (in thousands, except per share amounts and percentages):
 
                                 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Diluted Earnings Per Share from Continuing Operations
  $ 0.12     $ 0.10     $ 0.02     $ 0.00  
Reconciling Items (A)
    0.02       0.01       0.01       0.00  
                                 
Adjusted EPS
  $  0.14     $  0.11     $  0.03     $  0.00  
                                 
 
(A)  Additional information is provided in the Reconciling Items table below.
 


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    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,  
Reconciling Items   2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Loss on extinguishment of debt
  $ 6     $     $ 362     $  
Effect on income of derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments
    (138 )     1,341       (1,413 )     (582 )
Effect of foreign exchange loss on indebtedness
    2,772             2,772        
Transaction-related costs
          18             253  
                                 
Total reconciling items, pre-tax
    2,640       1,359       1,721       (329 )
Income tax impact
    (1,026 )     (605 )     (654 )     28  
Grantor trust activity
    581       517       59       107  
                                 
Total reconciling items, net of tax
  $ 2,195     $ 1,271     $ 1,126     $ (194 )
                                 
Diluted Earnings Per Share Impact
  $ 0.02     $ 0.01     $ 0.01     $ 0.00  
                                 
Weighted Average Diluted Shares Outstanding
    144,938       155,026       146,323       154,139  
                                 
 
Supplementary Financial Information — Adjusted EBITDA (Non-GAAP Discussion)
 
To supplement our results prepared in accordance with GAAP, we use the measure of Adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP measure as defined by the SEC. This non-GAAP financial measure is described below, and is not intended as a substitute and should not be considered in isolation from measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP. In addition, our use of non-GAAP financial measures may be different from non-GAAP measures used by other companies, limiting their usefulness for comparison purposes. The presentation of Adjusted EBITDA is intended to enhance the usefulness of our financial information by providing a measure which management internally uses to assess and evaluate the overall performance of its business and those of possible acquisition candidates, and highlight trends in the overall business.
 
We use Adjusted EBITDA to provide further information that is useful to an understanding of the financial covenants contained in the credit facilities of our most significant subsidiary, Covanta Energy, through which we conduct our core waste and energy services business, and as additional ways of viewing aspects of its operations that, when viewed with the GAAP results and the accompanying reconciliations to corresponding GAAP financial measures, provide a more complete understanding of our core business. The calculation of Adjusted EBITDA is based on the definition in Covanta Energy’s credit facilities as described below under Liquidity and Capital Resources, which we have guaranteed. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, as adjusted for additional items subtracted from or added to net income. Because our business is substantially comprised of that of Covanta Energy, our financial performance is substantially similar to that of Covanta Energy. For this reason, and in order to avoid use of multiple financial measures which are not all from the same entity, the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA and other financial measures presented herein are measured on a consolidated basis for continuing operations. Under these credit facilities, Covanta Energy is required to satisfy certain financial covenants, including certain ratios of which Adjusted EBITDA is an important component. Compliance with such financial covenants is expected to be the principal limiting factor which will affect our ability to engage in a broad range of activities in furtherance of our business, including making certain investments, acquiring businesses and incurring additional debt. Covanta Energy was in compliance with these covenants as of June 30, 2011. Failure to comply with such financial covenants could result in a default under these credit facilities, which default would have a material adverse affect on our financial condition and liquidity.
 
Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as an alternative to net income or cash flow provided by operating activities as indicators of our performance or liquidity or any other measures of performance or liquidity derived in accordance with GAAP.
 
In order to provide a meaningful basis for comparison, we are providing information with respect to our Adjusted EBITDA for the three and six months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, reconciled for each such period to net loss from continuing operations and cash flow provided by operating activities from continuing operations, which are believed to be the most directly comparable measures under GAAP.

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The following is a reconciliation of net income to Continuing Operations — Adjusted EBITDA (in thousands):
 
                                 
    For the
    For the
 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Covanta Holding Corporation — Continuing Operations
  $ 16,942     $ 15,479     $ 3,301     $ (534 )
Depreciation and amortization expense
    47,215       46,398       94,580       94,836  
Debt service:
                               
Net interest expense on project debt
    7,862       9,812       15,825       20,094  
Interest expense
    16,811       10,693       33,572       21,279  
Non-cash convertible debt related expense
    6,425       11,734       11,585       19,981  
Investment income
    (118 )     (173 )     (379 )     (396 )
                                 
Subtotal debt service
    30,980       32,066       60,603       60,958  
Income tax expense
    10,564       12,889       578       3,007  
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
    809       773       901       2,335  
Loss on extinguishment of debt
    6             362        
Other adjustments:
                               
Debt service billing in excess of revenue recognized (A)
    6,335       5,601       17,600       16,404  
Non-cash compensation expense
    4,418       5,921       8,987       9,421  
Other non-cash expenses (B)
    5,088       3,189       6,727       4,561  
                                 
Subtotal other adjustments
    15,841       14,711       33,314       30,386  
                                 
Total adjustments
    105,415       106,837       190,338       191,522  
                                 
Continuing Operations - Adjusted EBITDA
  $ 122,357     $ 122,316     $ 193,639     $ 190,988  
                                 
 
 
(A) Formally labeled “Decrease in Unbilled Service Receivables.” This amount represents a true-up between (a) revenue recognized in the period for client payments of project debt principal under service fee contract structures, which is accounted for on a straight-line basis over the term of the project debt, and (b) actual billings to clients for debt principal payments in the period. As result of this adjustment, Adjusted EBITDA reflects the actual amounts billed to clients for debt service principal, not the straight-lined revenue as recognized.
 
(B) Includes certain non-cash items that are added back under the definition of Adjusted EBITDA in Covanta Energy’s credit agreement.
 
The following is a reconciliation of cash flow provided by operating activities from continuing operations to Adjusted EBITDA (in thousands):
 
                                 
    For the
    For the
 
    Three Months Ended
    Six Months Ended
 
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2011     2010     2011     2010  
 
Cash flow provided by operating activities from continuing operations
  $ 62,834     $ 74,288     $ 156,282     $ 189,967  
                                 
Debt service
    30,980       32,066       60,603       60,958  
                                 
Change in working capital
    29,380       34,903       (41,806 )     (53,864 )
Change in restricted funds held in trust
    (5,299 )     (10,911 )     9,449       1,116  
Non-cash convertible debt related expense
    (6,425 )     (11,734 )     (11,585 )     (19,981 )
Amortization of debt premium and deferred financing costs
    (200 )     191       (334 )     360  
Equity in net income from unconsolidated investments
    1,850       1,099       1,973       (243 )
Dividends from unconsolidated investments
    (171 )     (1,336 )     (4,581 )     (1,783 )
Current tax provision
    2,968       (799 )     2,434       (2,140 )
Other
    6,440       4,549       21,204       16,598  
                                 
Sub-total:     28,543       15,962       (23,246 )     (59,937 )
                                 
Continuing Operations - Adjusted EBITDA
  $ 122,357     $ 122,316     $ 193,639     $ 190,988  
                                 


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For additional discussion related to management’s use of non-GAAP