Document

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
[x] QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2018
OR
[ ] TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission File Number 1-5823
 
CNA FINANCIAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
36-6169860
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
333 S. Wabash
Chicago, Illinois
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
60604
(Zip Code)
(312) 822-5000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes [x] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes [x] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated
filer [x]
 
Accelerated filer [ ]
 
Non-accelerated
filer [ ] (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company [ ]
 
Emerging growth company [ ]
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes [ ] No [x]
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
Class
 
Outstanding at April 26, 2018
Common Stock, Par value $2.50
 
271,372,358




Item Number
 
Page
Number
 
PART I. Financial Information
 
1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2.
3.
4.
 
PART II. Other Information
 
1.
6.

2

Table of Contents

PART I. Financial Information
Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
CNA Financial Corporation
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations (Unaudited)
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions, except per share data)
2018
 
2017
Revenues
 
 
 
Net earned premiums
$
1,785

 
$
1,645

Net investment income
490

 
545

Net realized investment gains
 
 
 

Other-than-temporary impairment losses
(6
)
 
(2
)
Other net realized investment gains
18

 
38

Net realized investment gains
12

 
36

Non-insurance warranty revenue (Note J)
238

 
93

Other revenues
10

 
11

Total revenues
2,535

 
2,330

Claims, Benefits and Expenses
 
 
 
Insurance claims and policyholders’ benefits
1,339

 
1,293

Amortization of deferred acquisition costs
296

 
305

Non-insurance warranty expense (Note J)
216

 
70

Other operating expenses
303

 
276

Interest
35

 
43

Total claims, benefits and expenses
2,189

 
1,987

Income before income tax
346

 
343

Income tax expense
(55
)
 
(83
)
Net income
$
291

 
$
260

 
 
 
 
Basic earnings per share
$
1.07

 
$
0.96

 
 
 
 
Diluted earnings per share
$
1.07

 
$
0.96

 
 
 
 
Dividends declared per share
$
2.30

 
$
2.25

 
 
 
 
Weighted Average Outstanding Common Stock and Common Stock Equivalents
 
 
 
Basic
271.4

 
270.7

Diluted
272.4

 
271.7

The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).

3

Table of Contents

CNA Financial Corporation
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) (Unaudited)
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Comprehensive (Loss) Income
 
 
 
Net income
$
291

 
$
260

Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income, Net of Tax
 
 
 
Changes in:
 
 
 
Net unrealized gains on investments with other-than-temporary impairments
(9
)
 
(4
)
Net unrealized gains on other investments
(429
)
 
67

Net unrealized gains on investments
(438
)
 
63

Foreign currency translation adjustment
12

 
11

Pension and postretirement benefits
10

 
7

Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax
(416
)
 
81

Total comprehensive (loss) income
$
(125
)
 
$
341

The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).

4

Table of Contents

CNA Financial Corporation
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In millions, except share data)
March 31, 2018 (Unaudited)
 
December 31,
2017
Assets
 
 
 
Investments:
 
 
 
Fixed maturity securities at fair value (amortized cost of $37,991and $38,215)
$
40,259

 
$
41,487

Equity securities at fair value (cost of $749 and $659)
770

 
695

Limited partnership investments
2,364

 
2,369

Other invested assets
48

 
44

Mortgage loans
864

 
839

Short term investments
1,230

 
1,436

Total investments
45,535

 
46,870

Cash
282

 
355

Reinsurance receivables (less allowance for uncollectible receivables of $29 and $29)
4,408

 
4,261

Insurance receivables (less allowance for uncollectible receivables of $43 and $44)
2,371

 
2,292

Accrued investment income
414

 
411

Deferred acquisition costs
665

 
634

Deferred income taxes
238

 
137

Property and equipment at cost (less accumulated depreciation of $253 and $274)
346

 
326

Goodwill
149

 
148

Other assets
3,241

 
1,133

Total assets
$
57,649

 
$
56,567

Liabilities
 

 
 

Insurance reserves:
 
 
 

Claim and claim adjustment expenses
$
22,067

 
$
22,004

Unearned premiums
4,256

 
4,029

Future policy benefits
10,783

 
11,179

Short term debt
30

 
150

Long term debt
2,679

 
2,708

Other liabilities (includes $147 and $143 due to Loews Corporation)
6,409

 
4,253

Total liabilities
46,224

 
44,323

Commitments and contingencies (Notes C and F)


 


Stockholders' Equity
 

 
 

Common stock ($2.50 par value; 500,000,000 shares authorized; 273,040,243 shares issued; 271,371,607 and 271,205,390 shares outstanding)
683

 
683

Additional paid-in capital
2,173

 
2,175

Retained earnings
9,028

 
9,414

Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income
(400
)
 
32

Treasury stock (1,668,636 and 1,834,853 shares), at cost
(59
)
 
(60
)
Total stockholders’ equity
11,425

 
12,244

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
$
57,649

 
$
56,567

The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).

5

Table of Contents

CNA Financial Corporation
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
 
 
 
Net income
$
291

 
$
260

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash flows provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Deferred income tax expense
29

 
72

Trading portfolio activity
(1
)
 
(6
)
Net realized investment gains
(12
)
 
(36
)
Equity method investees
(2
)
 
38

Net amortization of investments
(15
)
 
(12
)
Depreciation and amortization
20

 
21

Changes in:
 
 
 
Receivables, net
(215
)
 
89

Accrued investment income
(3
)
 
(26
)
Deferred acquisition costs
(29
)
 
(24
)
Insurance reserves
311

 
135

Other assets
(72
)
 
(37
)
Other liabilities
(99
)
 
(206
)
Other, net
15

 
14

Total adjustments
(73
)
 
22

Net cash flows provided by operating activities
218

 
282

Cash Flows from Investing Activities
 

 
 

Dispositions:
 
 
 
Fixed maturity securities - sales
2,576

 
1,359

Fixed maturity securities - maturities, calls and redemptions
531

 
823

Equity securities
7

 
16

Limited partnerships
69

 
57

Mortgage loans
11

 
3

Purchases:
 
 
 
Fixed maturity securities
(2,690
)
 
(2,097
)
Equity securities
(98
)
 
(7
)
Limited partnerships
(62
)
 
(18
)
Mortgage loans
(36
)
 
(23
)
Change in other investments
(4
)
 
(1
)
Change in short term investments
208

 
271

Purchases of property and equipment
(38
)
 
(30
)
Other, net
15

 
1

Net cash flows provided by investing activities
489

 
354

The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).

6

Table of Contents

Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
 
 
 
Dividends paid to common stockholders
$
(624
)
 
$
(609
)
Repayment of debt
(150
)
 

Other, net
(7
)
 

Net cash flows used by financing activities
(781
)

(609
)
Effect of foreign exchange rate changes on cash
1

 
1

Net change in cash
(73
)
 
28

Cash, beginning of year
355

 
271

Cash, end of period
$
282

 
$
299

The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).


7

Table of Contents

CNA Financial Corporation
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity (Unaudited)
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Common Stock
 
 
 
Balance, beginning of period
$
683

 
$
683

Balance, end of period
683

 
683

Additional Paid-in Capital
 
 
 
Balance, beginning of period
2,175

 
2,173

Stock-based compensation
(2
)
 
(12
)
Balance, end of period
2,173

 
2,161

Retained Earnings
 
 
 
Balance, beginning of period, as previously reported
9,414

 
9,359

Cumulative effect adjustments from changes in accounting guidance, net of tax
(50
)
 

Balance, beginning of period, as adjusted
9,364

 
9,359

Dividends paid to common stockholders
(627
)
 
(613
)
Net income
291

 
260

Balance, end of period
9,028

 
9,006

Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss)
 
 
 
Balance, beginning of period, as previously reported
32

 
(173
)
Cumulative effect adjustments from changes in accounting guidance, net of tax
(16
)
 

Balance, beginning of period, as adjusted
16

 
(173
)
Other comprehensive (loss) income
(416
)
 
81

Balance, end of period
(400
)
 
(92
)
Treasury Stock
 
 
 
Balance, beginning of period
(60
)
 
(73
)
Stock-based compensation
1

 
8

Balance, end of period
(59
)
 
(65
)
Total stockholders' equity
$
11,425

 
$
11,693

The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).


8

Table of Contents

CNA Financial Corporation
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Note A. General
Basis of Presentation
The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of CNA Financial Corporation (CNAF) and its subsidiaries. Collectively, CNAF and its subsidiaries are referred to as CNA or the Company. Loews Corporation (Loews) owned approximately 89% of the outstanding common stock of CNAF as of March 31, 2018.
The accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP). Intercompany amounts have been eliminated. Certain financial information that is normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP, including certain financial statement notes, is not required for interim reporting purposes and has been condensed or omitted. These statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto included in CNAF's Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission for the year ended December 31, 2017, including the summary of significant accounting policies in Note A. The preparation of Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
The interim financial data as of March 31, 2018 and for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 is unaudited. However, in the opinion of management, the interim data includes all adjustments, including normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair statement of the Company's results for the interim periods. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards Updates (ASU)
ASU 2014-09: In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue Recognition (Topic 606): Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The standard excludes from its scope the accounting for insurance contracts, financial instruments, and certain other agreements that are governed under other GAAP guidance. The updated guidance requires an entity to recognize revenue as performance obligations are met, in an amount that reflects the consideration the entity is entitled to receive for the transfer of the promised goods or services.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the updated guidance using the modified retrospective method applied to all contracts which were not completed as of the date of adoption, with the cumulative effect recognized as an adjustment to the opening balance of Retained earnings. Prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the previous accounting guidance.
Under the new guidance, revenue on warranty products and services will be recognized more slowly compared to the historic revenue recognition pattern. In addition, for warranty products in which the Company acts as the principal in the transaction, Non-insurance warranty revenue and Non-insurance warranty expense are increased to reflect the gross amount paid by consumers, including the retail seller’s markup which is considered a commission to the Company's agent. This gross-up of revenue and expense also resulted in an increase to Other assets and Other liabilities on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as the revenue and expense are recognized over the actuarially determined expected claims emergence pattern.

9

Table of Contents

The cumulative effect changes to the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet for the adoption of the updated guidance on January 1, 2018 were as follows:
(In millions)
Balance as of December 31, 2017
 
Adjustments Due to Adoption of Topic 606
 
Balance as of January 1, 2018
Other assets
$
1,133

 
$
1,882

 
$
3,015

Other liabilities
4,253

 
1,969

 
6,222

Deferred income taxes
137

 
21

 
158

Retained earnings
9,414

 
(66
)
 
9,348

The impact of adoption on the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations and Balance Sheet as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2018 was as follows:
Three months ended March 31
2018 Prior to Adoption
 
Effect of Adoption
 
2018 as Reported
(In millions)
Statement of operations:
 
 
 
 
 
Non-insurance warranty revenue
$
101

 
$
137

 
$
238

Total revenues
2,398

 
137

 
2,535

 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-insurance warranty expense
78

 
138

 
216

Total claims, benefits and expenses
2,051

 
138

 
2,189

 
 
 
 
 
 
Income before income tax
347

 
(1
)
 
346

Income tax expense
(55
)
 

 
(55
)
Net income
292

 
(1
)
 
291

 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance sheet(1):


 
 
 
 
Other assets
$
3,154

 
$
87

 
$
3,241

Other liabilities
6,321

 
88

 
6,409

Deferred income taxes
238

 

 
238

Retained earnings
9,029

 
(1
)
 
9,028

(1)
2018 Prior to Adoption includes the cumulative effect adjustment at adoption.
See Note J to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding non-insurance revenues from contracts with customers.

10

Table of Contents

ASU 2016-01: In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.  The updated accounting guidance requires changes to the reporting model for financial instruments. The guidance primarily changes the model for equity securities by requiring changes in the fair value of equity securities (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting, those without readily determinable fair values and those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be recognized through the income statement. The Company adopted the updated guidance on January 1, 2018 and recognized a cumulative effect adjustment that increased beginning Retained earnings by $28 million, net of tax. Prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the previous accounting guidance.
For the three months ended March 31, 2018, the Company recognized a $15 million pretax loss within Net realized investment gains (losses) for the change in fair value of non-redeemable preferred stock and less than a $1 million pretax gain within Net investment income for the change in fair value of common stock as a result of this change. For the three months ended March 31, 2017 a $1 million decrease in the fair value of common stock and a $5 million increase in the fair value of non-redeemable preferred stock was recognized in Other comprehensive income. The Company's non-redeemable preferred stock contain characteristics of debt securities, are priced similarly to bonds, and are held primarily for income generation through periodic dividends. While recognition of gains and losses on these securities are no longer discretionary, management does not consider the changes in fair value of non-redeemable preferred stock to be reflective of our primary operations. As such, the changes in the fair value of these securities are recorded through Net realized investments gains (losses). During the first quarter of 2018, the Company increased its common stock with the intention of holding the securities primarily for market appreciation. As such, the changes in the fair value of these securities are recorded through Net investment income.
ASU 2017-07: In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-07, Compensation-Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost. The updated accounting guidance requires changes to the presentation of the components of net periodic benefit cost on the income statement by requiring service cost to be presented with other employee compensation costs and other components of net periodic pension cost to be presented outside of any subtotal of operating income. The ASU also stipulates that only the service cost component of net benefit cost is eligible for capitalization. The Company adopted the updated guidance effective January 1, 2018. The guidance was applied on a prospective basis for capitalization of service costs and on a retrospective basis for the presentation of the service cost and other components of net periodic benefit costs in the Company's Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and in its disclosures. The Company expanded the related footnote disclosure, Note G to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, to disclose the amount of service cost and non-service cost components of net periodic benefit cost and the line items in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations in which such amounts are reported. The change limiting the costs eligible for capitalization is not material to the Company’s results of operations or financial position.
ASU 2018-02: In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. GAAP requires the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities due to a change in the tax rate to be included in Net income, even if the related income tax effects were originally recognized in Accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI). The ASU allows a reclassification from AOCI to Retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the new U.S. Federal corporate income tax rate enacted on December 22, 2017. The Company early adopted the updated guidance effective January 1, 2018 and elected to reclassify the stranded income tax effects relating to the reduction in the Federal corporate income tax rate from AOCI to Retained earnings at the beginning of the period of adoption. The net impact of the accounting change resulted in a $12 million increase in AOCI and a corresponding decrease in Retained earnings. The $12 million increase in AOCI is comprised of a $142 million increase in net unrealized gains (losses) on investments partially offset by a $130 million decrease in unrecognized pension and postretirement benefits.
The Company releases tax effects from AOCI utilizing the security-by-security approach for Net unrealized gains (losses) on investments with Other-than-temporary impairment (OTTI) losses and Net unrealized gains (losses) on other investments. For Pension and postretirement benefits, tax effects from AOCI are released at enacted tax rates based on the pre-tax adjustments to pension liabilities or assets recognized within OCI.

11

Table of Contents

Accounting Standards Pending Adoption
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842): Accounting for Leases. The updated accounting guidance requires lessees to recognize on the balance sheet the assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by all leases, including those historically accounted for as operating leases. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the effect the updated guidance will have on the Company's financial statements. It is expected that assets and liabilities will increase based on the present value of remaining lease payments for leases in place at the adoption date; however, this is not expected to be material to the Company's results of operations or financial position.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The updated accounting guidance requires changes to the recognition of credit losses on financial instruments not accounted for at fair value through net income. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the effect the guidance will have on the Company's financial statements, but expects the primary changes to be the use of the expected credit loss model for its mortgage loan portfolio and reinsurance receivables and the presentation of credit losses within the available-for-sale fixed maturities portfolio through an allowance method rather than as a direct write-down. The expected credit loss model will require a financial asset to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The allowance method for available-for-sale debt securities will allow the Company to record reversals of credit losses if the estimate of credit losses declines.
Income Tax Reform Update
On December 22, 2017, H.R.1, “An Act to Provide for Reconciliation Pursuant to Titles II and V of the Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018,” was signed into law (Tax Reform Legislation).
Shortly after enactment, the Securities and Exchange Commission Staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (SAB 118) to provide guidance on accounting for the Tax Reform Legislation impacts when the measurements of the income tax effects are complete, incomplete, or incomplete but for which a provisional amount can be estimated. SAB 118 permits the recognition of provisional amounts, and adjustments to provisional amounts, in subsequent reporting periods within the one year measurement period.
The Company has reflected the following incomplete but reasonably estimated provisional items in Deferred income taxes on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at March 31, 2018. The effects of the adjustments to the Company’s provisional amounts for the three months ended March 31, 2018 did not impact income tax expense.
The Company has recalculated its insurance reserves and the transition adjustment from existing law.
The Company has recalculated amounts under special accounting method provisions for recognizing income for Federal income tax purposes no later than for financial accounting purposes and the transition adjustment from existing law.
The Company has not recorded current or deferred taxes with respect to the international provisions since it does not expect to have inclusions in U.S. taxable income for certain earnings of foreign subsidiaries in future years.

12

Table of Contents

Note B. Earnings (Loss) Per Share
Earnings (loss) per share is based on the weighted average number of outstanding common shares. Basic earnings (loss) per share excludes the impact of dilutive securities and is computed by dividing Net income (loss) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock.
For the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, approximately 1,009 thousand and 974 thousand potential shares attributable to exercises or conversions into common stock under stock-based employee compensation plans were included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share. For those same periods, approximately 9 thousand and 148 thousand potential shares attributable to exercises or conversions into common stock under stock-based employee compensation plans were not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share because the effect would have been antidilutive.

13

Table of Contents

Note C. Investments
The significant components of Net investment income are presented in the following table.
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Fixed maturity securities
$
446

 
$
455

Equity securities
10

 
1

Limited partnership investments
30

 
90

Mortgage loans
11

 
7

Short term investments
6

 
3

Trading portfolio
2

 
2

Other

 
1

Gross investment income
505

 
559

Investment expense
(15
)
 
(14
)
Net investment income
$
490

 
$
545

During the three months ended March 31, 2018, less than $1 million of Net investment income was recognized due to the change in fair value of common stock still held as of March 31, 2018.
Net realized investment gains (losses) are presented in the following table.
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Net realized investment gains (losses):
 
 
 
Fixed maturity securities:
 
 
 
Gross realized gains
$
69

 
$
49

Gross realized losses
(51
)
 
(17
)
Net realized investment gains (losses) on fixed maturity securities
18

 
32

Equity securities
(15
)
 

Derivatives
5

 
1

Short term investments and other
4

 
3

Net realized investment gains (losses)
$
12

 
$
36

During the three months ended March 31, 2018, $15 million of Net realized investment losses were recognized due to the change in fair value of non-redeemable preferred stock still held as of March 31, 2018.
The components of OTTI losses recognized in earnings by asset type are presented in the following table.
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Fixed maturity securities available-for-sale:

 
 
Corporate and other bonds
$
5

 
$
2

Asset-backed
1

 

OTTI losses recognized in earnings
$
6

 
$
2


14

Table of Contents

The following tables present a summary of fixed maturity and equity securities.
March 31, 2018 (1)
Cost or
Amortized
Cost
 
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Estimated
Fair
Value
 
Unrealized
OTTI
Losses (Gains)
(In millions)
 
 
 
 
Fixed maturity securities available-for-sale:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate and other bonds
$
17,538

 
$
1,177

 
$
115

 
$
18,600

 
$

States, municipalities and political subdivisions
11,682

 
1,205

 
12

 
12,875

 

Asset-backed:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Residential mortgage-backed
5,050

 
83

 
78

 
5,055

 
(27
)
Commercial mortgage-backed
1,948

 
29

 
22

 
1,955

 

Other asset-backed
1,185

 
10

 
7

 
1,188

 

Total asset-backed
8,183

 
122

 
107

 
8,198

 
(27
)
U.S. Treasury and obligations of government-sponsored enterprises
124

 
2

 
7

 
119

 

Foreign government
448

 
7

 
5

 
450

 

Redeemable preferred stock
9

 
1

 

 
10

 

Total fixed maturity securities available-for-sale
37,984

 
2,514

 
246

 
40,252

 
$
(27
)
Total fixed maturity securities trading
7

 
 
 
 
 
7

 
 
Total fixed maturity securities
$
37,991

 
$
2,514

 
$
246

 
$
40,259

 
 

December 31, 2017
Cost or
Amortized
Cost
 
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Estimated
Fair
Value
 
Unrealized
OTTI
Losses (Gains)
(In millions)
 
 
 
 
Fixed maturity securities available-for-sale:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate and other bonds
$
17,210

 
$
1,625

 
$
28

 
$
18,807

 
$

States, municipalities and political subdivisions
12,478

 
1,551

 
2

 
14,027

 
(11
)
Asset-backed:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Residential mortgage-backed
5,043

 
109

 
32

 
5,120

 
(27
)
Commercial mortgage-backed
1,840

 
46

 
14

 
1,872

 

Other asset-backed
1,083

 
16

 
5

 
1,094

 

Total asset-backed
7,966

 
171

 
51

 
8,086

 
(27
)
U.S. Treasury and obligations of government-sponsored enterprises
111

 
2

 
4

 
109

 

Foreign government
437

 
9

 
2

 
444

 

Redeemable preferred stock
10

 
1

 

 
11

 

Total fixed maturity securities available-for-sale
38,212

 
3,359

 
87

 
41,484

 
$
(38
)
Total fixed maturity securities trading
3

 
 
 
 
 
3

 
 
Equity securities available-for-sale:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock
21

 
7

 
1

 
27

 
 
Preferred stock
638

 
31

 
1

 
668

 
 
Total equity securities available-for-sale
659

 
38

 
2

 
695

 
 
Total fixed maturity and equity securities
$
38,874

 
$
3,397

 
$
89

 
$
42,182

 
 
(1)
As of January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The change in fair value of equity securities is now recognized through the income statement. See Note A to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.


15

Table of Contents

The net unrealized gains on investments included in the tables above are recorded as a component of AOCI. When presented in AOCI, these amounts are net of tax and any required Shadow Adjustments. To the extent that unrealized gains on fixed income securities supporting certain products within the Life & Group segment would result in a premium deficiency if realized, a related increase in Insurance reserves is recorded, net of tax, as a reduction of net unrealized gains through Other comprehensive income (loss) (Shadow Adjustments). As of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the net unrealized gains on investments included in AOCI were correspondingly reduced by Shadow Adjustments of $1,338 million and $1,411 million.

16

Table of Contents

The following tables present the estimated fair value and gross unrealized losses of fixed maturity and equity securities in a gross unrealized loss position by the length of time in which the securities have continuously been in that position.
 
Less than 12 Months
 
12 Months or Longer
 
Total
March 31, 2018 (1)
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
(In millions)
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed maturity securities available-for-sale:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate and other bonds
$
4,229

 
$
104

 
$
146

 
$
11

 
$
4,375

 
$
115

States, municipalities and political subdivisions
962

 
12

 
3

 

 
965

 
12

Asset-backed:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Residential mortgage-backed
2,570

 
55

 
504

 
23

 
3,074

 
78

Commercial mortgage-backed
668

 
11

 
200

 
11

 
868

 
22

Other asset-backed
441

 
5

 
15

 
2

 
456

 
7

Total asset-backed
3,679

 
71

 
719

 
36

 
4,398

 
107

U.S. Treasury and obligations of government-sponsored enterprises
59

 
4

 
26

 
3

 
85

 
7

Foreign government
214

 
5

 
4

 

 
218

 
5

Total
$
9,143

 
$
196

 
$
898

 
$
50

 
$
10,041

 
$
246


 
Less than 12 Months
 
12 Months or Longer
 
Total
December 31, 2017
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
(In millions)
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed maturity securities available-for-sale:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate and other bonds
$
1,354

 
$
21

 
$
168

 
$
7

 
$
1,522

 
$
28

States, municipalities and political subdivisions
72

 
1

 
85

 
1

 
157

 
2

Asset-backed:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Residential mortgage-backed
1,228

 
5

 
947

 
27

 
2,175

 
32

Commercial mortgage-backed
403

 
4

 
212

 
10

 
615

 
14

Other asset-backed
248

 
3

 
18

 
2

 
266

 
5

Total asset-backed
1,879

 
12

 
1,177

 
39

 
3,056

 
51

U.S. Treasury and obligations of government-sponsored enterprises
49

 
2

 
21

 
2

 
70

 
4

   Foreign government
166

 
2

 
4

 

 
170

 
2

Total fixed maturity securities available-for-sale
3,520

 
38

 
1,455

 
49

 
4,975

 
87

Equity securities available-for-sale:

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock
7

 
1

 

 

 
7

 
1

Preferred stock
93

 
1

 

 

 
93

 
1

Total equity securities available-for-sale
100

 
2

 

 

 
100

 
2

Total
$
3,620

 
$
40

 
$
1,455

 
$
49

 
$
5,075

 
$
89

(1)
As of January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The change in fair value of equity securities is now recognized through the income statement. See Note A to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

17

Table of Contents

Based on current facts and circumstances, the Company believes the unrealized losses presented in the March 31, 2018 securities in a gross unrealized loss position table above are not indicative of the ultimate collectibility of the current amortized cost of the securities, but rather are attributable to changes in interest rates, credit spreads and other factors. The Company has no current intent to sell securities with unrealized losses, nor is it more likely than not that it will be required to sell prior to recovery of amortized cost; accordingly, the Company has determined that there are no additional OTTI losses to be recorded as of March 31, 2018.
The following table presents the activity related to the pretax credit loss component reflected in Retained earnings on fixed maturity securities still held as of March 31, 2018 and 2017 and for which a portion of an OTTI loss was recognized in Other comprehensive income (loss).
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Beginning balance of credit losses on fixed maturity securities
$
27

 
$
36

Reductions for securities sold during the period
(2
)
 
(4
)
Ending balance of credit losses on fixed maturity securities
$
25

 
$
32

Contractual Maturity
The following table presents available-for-sale fixed maturity securities by contractual maturity.
 
March 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
(In millions)
Cost or
Amortized
Cost
 
Estimated
Fair
Value
 
Cost or
Amortized
Cost
 
Estimated
Fair
Value
Due in one year or less
$
1,323

 
$
1,343

 
$
1,135

 
$
1,157

Due after one year through five years
8,277

 
8,495

 
8,165

 
8,501

Due after five years through ten years
15,802

 
16,093

 
16,060

 
16,718

Due after ten years
12,582

 
14,321

 
12,852

 
15,108

Total
$
37,984

 
$
40,252

 
$
38,212

 
$
41,484

Actual maturities may differ from contractual maturities because certain securities may be called or prepaid. Securities not due at a single date are allocated based on weighted average life.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company holds an embedded derivative on a funds withheld liability with a notional value of $163 million and $167 million as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and a fair value of $1 million and $(3) million as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017. The embedded derivative on the funds withheld liability is accounted for separately and reported with the funds withheld liability in Other liabilities on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Investment Commitments
As of March 31, 2018, the Company had committed approximately $428 million to future capital calls from various third-party limited partnership investments in exchange for an ownership interest in the related partnerships.
As of March 31, 2018, the Company had mortgage loan commitments of $47 million representing signed loan applications received and accepted.
The Company invests in various privately placed debt securities, including bank loans, as part of its overall investment strategy and has committed to additional future purchases, sales and funding. Purchases and sales of privately placed debt securities are recorded once funded. As of March 31, 2018, the Company had commitments to purchase or fund additional amounts of $198 million and sell $162 million under the terms of such securities.

18

Table of Contents

Note D. Fair Value
Fair value is the price that would be received upon sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The following fair value hierarchy is used in selecting inputs, with the highest priority given to Level 1, as these are the most transparent or reliable.
Level 1 - Quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets.
Level 2 - Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable in active markets.
Level 3 - Valuations derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs are not observable.
Prices may fall within Level 1, 2 or 3 depending upon the methodology and inputs used to estimate fair value for each specific security. In general, the Company seeks to price securities using third-party pricing services. Securities not priced by pricing services are submitted to independent brokers for valuation and, if those are not available, internally developed pricing models are used to value assets using a methodology and inputs the Company believes market participants would use to value the assets. Prices obtained from third-party pricing services or brokers are not adjusted by the Company.
The Company performs control procedures over information obtained from pricing services and brokers to ensure prices received represent a reasonable estimate of fair value and to confirm representations regarding whether inputs are observable or unobservable. Procedures may include i) the review of pricing service methodologies or broker pricing qualifications, ii) back-testing, where past fair value estimates are compared to actual transactions executed in the market on similar dates, iii) exception reporting, where period-over-period changes in price are reviewed and challenged with the pricing service or broker based on exception criteria, iv) deep dives, where the Company performs an independent analysis of the inputs and assumptions used to price individual securities and v) pricing validation, where prices received are compared to prices independently estimated by the Company.

19

Table of Contents

Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis are presented in the following tables. Corporate bonds and other includes obligations of the U.S. Treasury, government-sponsored enterprises and foreign governments and redeemable preferred stock.
March 31, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
Assets/Liabilities
at Fair Value
(In millions)
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed maturity securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate bonds and other
$
167

 
$
18,917

 
$
100

 
$
19,184

States, municipalities and political subdivisions

 
12,876

 
1

 
12,877

Asset-backed

 
7,919

 
279

 
8,198

Total fixed maturity securities
167

 
39,712

 
380

 
40,259

Equity securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock
83

 

 
4

 
87

Non-redeemable preferred stock
67

 
602

 
14

 
683

Total equity securities
150

 
602

 
18

 
770

Short term and other
156

 
978

 

 
1,134

Total assets
$
473

 
$
41,292

 
$
398

 
$
42,163

Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

Other liabilities
$

 
$
(1
)
 
$

 
$
(1
)
Total liabilities
$

 
$
(1
)
 
$

 
$
(1
)
December 31, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
Assets/Liabilities
at Fair Value
(In millions)
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed maturity securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate bonds and other
$
128

 
$
19,148

 
$
98

 
$
19,374

States, municipalities and political subdivisions

 
14,026

 
1

 
14,027

Asset-backed

 
7,751

 
335

 
8,086

Total fixed maturity securities
128

 
40,925

 
434

 
41,487

Equity securities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock
23

 

 
4

 
27

Non-redeemable preferred stock
68

 
584

 
16

 
668

Total equity securities
91

 
584

 
20

 
695

Short term and other
396

 
958

 

 
1,354

Total assets
$
615

 
$
42,467

 
$
454

 
$
43,536

Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

Other liabilities
$

 
$
3

 
$

 
$
3

Total liabilities
$

 
$
3

 
$

 
$
3


20

Table of Contents

The tables below present a reconciliation for all assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3).
Level 3
(In millions)
Corporate bonds and other
 
States, municipalities and political subdivisions
 
Asset-backed
 
Equity securities
 
Derivative financial instruments
 
Total
Balance as of January 1, 2018
$
98

 
$
1

 
$
335

 
$
20

 
$

 
$
454

Total realized and unrealized investment gains (losses):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Reported in Net realized investment gains (losses)
(1
)
 

 
7

 
(2
)
 

 
4

Reported in Net investment income

 

 

 

 

 

Reported in Other comprehensive income

 

 
(5
)
 

 

 
(5
)
Total realized and unrealized investment gains (losses)
(1
)
 

 
2

 
(2
)
 

 
(1
)
Purchases

 

 
30

 

 

 
30

Sales

 

 
(72
)
 

 

 
(72
)
Settlements
(2
)
 

 
(6
)
 

 

 
(8
)
Transfers into Level 3
5

 

 

 

 

 
5

Transfers out of Level 3

 

 
(10
)
 

 

 
(10
)
Balance as of March 31, 2018
$
100

 
$
1

 
$
279

 
$
18

 
$

 
$
398

Unrealized gains (losses) on Level 3 assets and liabilities held as of March 31, 2018 recognized in Net income (loss)
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
(2
)
 
$

 
$
(2
)

Level 3
(In millions)
Corporate bonds and other
 
States, municipalities and political subdivisions
 
Asset-backed
 
Equity securities
 
Derivative financial instruments
 
Life settlement contracts
 
Total
Balance as of January 1, 2017
$
130

 
$
1

 
$
199

 
$
19

 
$

 
$
58

 
$
407

Total realized and unrealized investment gains (losses):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reported in Net realized investment gains (losses)

 

 

 

 
1

 

 
1

Reported in Other revenues

 

 

 

 

 
6

 
6

Reported in Other comprehensive income
1

 

 
2

 
1

 

 

 
4

Total realized and unrealized investment gains (losses)
1

 

 
2

 
1

 
1

 
6

 
11

Purchases
5

 

 
38

 
1

 

 

 
44

Sales
(1
)
 

 

 
(2
)
 
(1
)
 
(13
)
 
(17
)
Settlements
(14
)
 

 
(6
)
 

 

 
(5
)
 
(25
)
Transfers into Level 3

 

 
28

 

 

 

 
28

Transfers out of Level 3

 

 
(5
)
 

 

 

 
(5
)
Balance as of March 31, 2017
$
121

 
$
1

 
$
256

 
$
19

 
$

 
$
46

 
$
443

Unrealized gains (losses) on Level 3 assets and liabilities held as of March 31, 2017 recognized in Net income (loss)
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$


21

Table of Contents

Securities may be transferred in or out of levels within the fair value hierarchy based on the availability of observable market information and quoted prices used to determine the fair value of the security. The availability of observable market information and quoted prices varies based on market conditions and trading volume. During the three months ended March 31, 2018 there were $29 million of transfers from Level 2 to Level 1 and no transfers from Level 1 to Level 2. During the three months ended March 31, 2017 there were no transfers between Level 1 and Level 2. The Company's policy is to recognize transfers between levels at the beginning of quarterly reporting periods.
Valuation Methodologies and Inputs
The following section describes the valuation methodologies and relevant inputs used to measure different financial instruments at fair value, including an indication of the level in the fair value hierarchy in which the instruments are generally classified.
Fixed Maturity Securities
Level 1 securities include highly liquid and exchange traded bonds and redeemable preferred stock, valued using quoted market prices. Level 2 securities include most other fixed maturity securities as the significant inputs are observable in the marketplace. All classes of Level 2 fixed maturity securities are valued using a methodology based on information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets, a discounted cash flow methodology, or a combination of both when necessary. Common inputs for all classes of fixed maturity securities include prices from recently executed transactions of similar securities, marketplace quotes, benchmark yields, spreads off benchmark yields, interest rates and U.S. Treasury or swap curves. Specifically for asset-backed securities, key inputs include prepayment and default projections based on past performance of the underlying collateral and current market data. Fixed maturity securities are primarily assigned to Level 3 in cases where broker/dealer quotes are significant inputs to the valuation and there is a lack of transparency as to whether these quotes are based on information that is observable in the marketplace. Level 3 securities also include private placement debt securities whose fair value is determined using internal models with inputs that are not market observable.
Equity Securities
Level 1 securities include publicly traded securities valued using quoted market prices. Level 2 securities are primarily valued using pricing for similar securities, recently executed transactions and other pricing models utilizing market observable inputs. Level 3 securities are primarily priced using broker/dealer quotes and internal models with inputs that are not market observable.
Short Term and Other Invested Assets
Securities that are actively traded or have quoted prices are classified as Level 1. These securities include money market funds and treasury bills. Level 2 primarily includes commercial paper, for which all inputs are market observable. Fixed maturity securities purchased within one year of maturity are classified consistent with fixed maturity securities discussed above. Short term investments as presented in the tables above differ from the amounts presented on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets because certain short term investments, such as time deposits, are not measured at fair value.
As of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, there were approximately $42 million and $39 million of overseas deposits within other invested assets, which can be redeemed at net asset value in 90 days or less. Overseas deposits are excluded from the fair value hierarchy because their fair value is recorded using the net asset value per share (or equivalent) practical expedient.
Life Settlement Contracts
The Company sold its life settlement contracts to a third party in 2017. The valuation of the life settlement contracts was based on the terms of sale. The contracts were classified as Level 3 as there was not an active market for life settlement contracts.

22

Table of Contents

Derivative Financial Investments
Level 2 investments primarily include the embedded derivative on the funds withheld liability. The embedded derivative on funds withheld liability is valued using the change in fair value of the assets supporting the funds withheld liability, which are fixed maturity securities valued with observable inputs.
Significant Unobservable Inputs
The following tables present quantitative information about the significant unobservable inputs utilized by the Company in the fair value measurements of Level 3 assets. Valuations for assets and liabilities not presented in the tables below are primarily based on broker/dealer quotes for which there is a lack of transparency as to inputs used to develop the valuations. The quantitative detail of these unobservable inputs is neither provided nor reasonably available to the Company.
March 31, 2018
Estimated Fair Value
(In millions)
 
Valuation Technique(s)
 
Unobservable Input(s)
 
Range
 (Weighted Average)
Fixed maturity securities
$
133

 
Discounted cash flow
 
Credit spread
 
1% - 12% (3%)
December 31, 2017
Estimated Fair Value
(In millions)
 
Valuation Technique(s)
 
Unobservable Input(s)
 
Range
 (Weighted Average)
Fixed maturity securities
$
136

 
Discounted cash flow
 
Credit spread
 
1% - 12% (3%)
For fixed maturity securities, an increase to the credit spread assumptions would result in a lower fair value measurement.
Financial Assets and Liabilities Not Measured at Fair Value
The carrying amount and estimated fair value of the Company's financial assets and liabilities which are not measured at fair value on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets are presented in the following tables.
March 31, 2018
Carrying
Amount
 
Estimated Fair Value
(In millions)
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mortgage loans
$
864

 
$

 
$

 
$
856

 
$
856

Note receivable
34

 

 


34

 
34

Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Short term debt
$
30

 
$

 
$
30

 
$

 
$
30

Long term debt
2,679

 

 
2,786

 

 
2,786

December 31, 2017
Carrying
Amount
 
Estimated Fair Value
(In millions)
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mortgage loans
$
839

 
$

 
$

 
$
844

 
$
844

Note receivable
46

 

 

 
46

 
46

Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Short term debt
$
150

 
$

 
$
150

 
$

 
$
150

Long term debt
2,708

 

 
2,896

 

 
2,896

The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair value of these financial assets and liabilities.
The fair values of mortgage loans were based on the present value of the expected future cash flows discounted at the current interest rate for origination of similar quality loans, adjusted for specific loan risk.
The fair value of the note receivable was based on the present value of the expected future cash flows discounted at the current interest rate for origination of similar notes, adjusted for specific credit risk.

23

Table of Contents

The Company's senior notes and debentures were valued based on observable market prices. The fair value for other debt was estimated using discounted cash flows based on current incremental borrowing rates for similar borrowing arrangements.
The carrying amounts reported on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets for Cash, Short term investments not carried at fair value, Accrued investment income and certain Other assets and Other liabilities approximate fair value due to the short term nature of these items. These assets and liabilities are not listed in the tables above.

24

Table of Contents

Note E. Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
The Company's property and casualty insurance claim and claim adjustment expense reserves represent the estimated amounts necessary to resolve all outstanding claims, including incurred but not reported (IBNR) claims as of the reporting date. The Company's reserve projections are based primarily on detailed analysis of the facts in each case, the Company's experience with similar cases and various historical development patterns. Consideration is given to such historical patterns as claim reserving trends and settlement practices, loss payments, pending levels of unpaid claims and product mix, as well as court decisions, economic conditions, including inflation, and public attitudes. All of these factors can affect the estimation of claim and claim adjustment expense reserves.
Establishing claim and claim adjustment expense reserves, including claim and claim adjustment expense reserves for catastrophic events that have occurred, is an estimation process. Many factors can ultimately affect the final settlement of a claim and, therefore, the necessary reserve. Changes in the law, results of litigation, medical costs, the cost of repair materials and labor rates can affect ultimate claim costs. In addition, time can be a critical part of reserving determinations since the longer the span between the incidence of a loss and the payment or settlement of the claim, the more variable the ultimate settlement amount can be. Accordingly, short-tail claims, such as property damage claims, tend to be more reasonably estimable than long-tail claims, such as workers' compensation, general liability and professional liability claims. Adjustments to prior year reserve estimates, if necessary, are reflected in the results of operations in the period that the need for such adjustments is determined. There can be no assurance that the Company's ultimate cost for insurance losses will not exceed current estimates.
Catastrophes are an inherent risk of the property and casualty insurance business and have contributed to material period-to-period fluctuations in the Company's results of operations and/or equity. The Company reported catastrophe losses, net of reinsurance, of $34 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. Net catastrophe losses in the first quarter of 2018 and 2017 related primarily to U.S. weather-related events.

25

Table of Contents

Liability for Unpaid Claim and Claim Adjustment Expenses Rollforward
The following table presents a reconciliation between beginning and ending claim and claim adjustment expense reserves, including claim and claim adjustment expense reserves of the Life & Group segment.
For the three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Reserves, beginning of year:
 
 
 
Gross
$
22,004

 
$
22,343

Ceded
3,934

 
4,094

Net reserves, beginning of year
18,070

 
18,249

Net incurred claim and claim adjustment expenses:
 
 
 
Provision for insured events of current year
1,246

 
1,207

Decrease in provision for insured events of prior years
(34
)
 
(82
)
Amortization of discount
47

 
48

Total net incurred (1)
1,259

 
1,173

Net payments attributable to:
 
 
 
Current year events
(91
)
 
(68
)
Prior year events
(1,219
)
 
(1,184
)
Total net payments
(1,310
)
 
(1,252
)
Foreign currency translation adjustment and other
(9
)
 
14

Net reserves, end of period
18,010

 
18,184

Ceded reserves, end of period
4,057

 
4,076

Gross reserves, end of period
$
22,067

 
$
22,260

(1)
Total net incurred above does not agree to Insurance claims and policyholders' benefits as reflected on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations due to amounts related to retroactive reinsurance deferred gain accounting, uncollectible reinsurance and loss deductible receivables, and benefit expenses related to future policy benefits, which are not reflected in the table above.
Net Prior Year Development
Changes in estimates of claim and claim adjustment expense reserves, net of reinsurance, for prior years are defined as net prior year loss reserve development (development). These changes can be favorable or unfavorable. The following table presents development recorded for the Specialty, Commercial, International and Corporate & Other segments.
For the three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Pretax (favorable) unfavorable development:
 
 
 
Specialty
$
(30
)
 
$
(12
)
Commercial
(9
)
 
(43
)
International

 
(2
)
Corporate & Other

 

Total pretax (favorable) unfavorable development
$
(39
)
 
$
(57
)


26

Table of Contents

Specialty
The following table presents further detail of the development recorded for the Specialty segment.
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Pretax (favorable) unfavorable development:
 
 
 
Medical Professional Liability
$
20

 
$
20

Other Professional Liability and Management Liability
(34
)
 
(32
)
Surety
(15
)
 

Warranty

 

Other
(1
)
 

Total pretax (favorable) unfavorable development
$
(30
)
 
$
(12
)
2018
Unfavorable development for medical professional liability was primarily due to higher than expected severity in accident years 2014 and 2017 in our hospitals business.
Favorable development in other professional liability and management liability was primarily due to lower than expected claim frequency in accident years 2013 through 2015 related to financial institutions.
Favorable development for surety was due to lower than expected loss emergence for accident years 2015 and prior.
2017
Favorable development in other professional liability and management liability was primarily due to favorable settlements on closed claims and lower than expected frequency of large losses related to professional liability in accident years 2011 through 2016.
Unfavorable development in medical professional liability was primarily due to continued higher than expected frequency in aging services.

27

Table of Contents

Commercial
The following table presents further detail of the development recorded for the Commercial segment.
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Pretax (favorable) unfavorable development:
 
 
 
Commercial Auto
$
(1
)
 
$
(26
)
General Liability
(8
)
 
(18
)
Workers' Compensation
(6
)
 

Property and Other
6

 
1

Total pretax (favorable) unfavorable development
$
(9
)
 
$
(43
)
2018
Favorable development for general liability was primarily due to lower than expected frequency and severity in accident years 2015 and prior for our middle market construction business.
2017
Favorable development for commercial auto was primarily due to lower than expected severity in accident years 2013 through 2015.
Favorable development for general liability was due to lower than expected severity in life sciences.
International
The following table presents further detail of the development recorded for the International segment.
Three months ended March 31
 
 
 
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Pretax (favorable) unfavorable development:
 
 
 
Medical Professional Liability
$
1

 
$

Other Professional Liability
1

 
(1
)
Liability

 

Property & Marine
(2
)
 
1

Other

 
(2
)
Total pretax (favorable) unfavorable development
$

 
$
(2
)

28

Table of Contents

Asbestos and Environmental Pollution (A&EP) Reserves
In 2010, Continental Casualty Company (CCC) together with several of the Company’s other insurance subsidiaries completed a transaction with National Indemnity Company (NICO), a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc., under which substantially all of the Company’s legacy A&EP liabilities were ceded to NICO through a Loss Portfolio Transfer (LPT). At the effective date of the transaction, the Company ceded approximately $1.6 billion of net A&EP claim and allocated claim adjustment expense reserves to NICO under a retroactive reinsurance agreement with an aggregate limit of $4 billion. The $1.6 billion of claim and allocated claim adjustment expense reserves ceded to NICO was net of $1.2 billion of ceded claim and allocated claim adjustment expense reserves under existing third-party reinsurance contracts. The NICO LPT aggregate reinsurance limit also covers credit risk on the existing third-party reinsurance related to these liabilities. The Company paid NICO a reinsurance premium of $2 billion and transferred to NICO billed third-party reinsurance receivables related to A&EP claims with a net book value of $215 million, resulting in total consideration of $2.2 billion.
Subsequent to the effective date of the LPT, the Company recognized adverse prior year development on its A&EP reserves which resulted in additional amounts ceded under the LPT. As a result, the cumulative amounts ceded under the LPT exceeded the $2.2 billion consideration paid, resulting in the NICO LPT moving into a gain position, requiring retroactive reinsurance accounting. Under retroactive reinsurance accounting, this gain is deferred and only recognized in earnings in proportion to actual paid recoveries under the LPT. Over the life of the contract, there is no economic impact as long as any additional losses incurred are within the limit of the LPT. In a period in which the Company recognizes a change in the estimate of A&EP reserves that increases the amounts ceded under the LPT, the proportion of actual paid recoveries to total ceded losses is affected and the change in the deferred gain is recognized in earnings as if the revised estimate of ceded losses was available at the effective date of the LPT. The effect of the deferred retroactive reinsurance benefit is recorded in Insurance claims and policyholders' benefits in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations.
The following table presents the impact of the Loss Portfolio Transfer on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Three months ended March 31